Chapter 8 - Police Behavior, Fall '09 Upload

Chapter 8 - Police Behavior, Fall '09 Upload - Police...

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Unformatted text preview: Police Behavior Police (Chap. 8) (Chap. Chapter 8 Outline Chapter Perspectives (explanations) of police Perspectives behavior behavior Studies of police behavior Decision making & police discretion Police deviance Perspectives of Police Behavior Perspectives Explanations of police behavior » ______________ perspectives – the ways officers are ______________ similar to one another similar » _______________ perspectives – the ways officers _______________ are different from one another are Universalistic Perspectives Universalistic ______________- the social context of ______________- police behavior police ______________- the study of the mind or ______________- mental processes & behavior mental ______________- the study of the police ______________- organization & behavior organization Particularistic perspectives Particularistic Particularistic perspectives (differences) Particularistic (differences) » Worden (1989) found police not psychologically Worden _________________ _________________ not always intensely loyal to one another not all cynical or authoritarian not all suspicious or secretive Where do officers’ attitudes & values Where come from? come » If _____________________, then how officers If are trained at academy & on the job critical are » If formed ____________________, selecting If “right” kinds of officers critical “right” Socialization Socialization Socialization theory: Research 1960s+ Socialization suggested behavior largely determined by work experiences & peer influence by Two types: » ___________ socialization » ___________ socialization Some recent research provides support Some for _________________theory (Caldero & Larose, 2003) 2003) » For example: police values unaffected by socialization education has little impact on values values are stable over time values are similar regardless of race & ethnicity Is there a police personality? Is Several early studies suggested so, but… » Lefkowitz’s (1975) review found most studies were Lefkowitz’s methodologically flawed & conclusions often based on mere opinion on » Bayley & Mendelsohn (1969) found based on all Bayley personality scales, police were average people personality More conservative, but not authoritarian » Other research shows most people choose police Other work to _______________________________ work Selected Studies of Police Behavior Selected Our Lawless Police (Hopkins, 1931) (Hopkins, Violence & the Police (Westley, 1970) (Westley, Justice Without Trial (Skolnick, 1966) (Skolnick, Varieties of Police Behavior (Wilson, 1968) (Wilson, » studied 8 PDs & ID’d 3 styles of policing » 1. Watchmen » 2. Service » 3. Legalistic 3. Each handled order-maintenance problems differently… Working the Street: Police Discretion (Brown, 1981) 1981) » ID’d 4 styles of policing in 3 southern CA PDs » officer styles depended on their aggressiveness - degree of problem seeking behavior selectivity - level of concern about serious crime problems » 1- old-style crime fighter » 2- clean-beat crime fighter » 3- service-style officers » 4- professional-style officers Understanding Police Culture (Crank, Understanding 1998) 1998) » Culture (norms, values) emerges from daily Culture work & is organized around 4 central principles principles Coercive territorial control The unknown Solidarity Loose coupling Is there a universal police culture? Is Paoline (2003) argues culture can vary Paoline across & within departments (ranks) across Decision Making & Police Discretion Decision Two important decisions officers make Two that affect the public that » 1) ___________to intervene in situations (they 1) ___________to are not dispatched to) are » 2) ___________to intervene 2) ___________ » can be complex Bayley Bayley & Bittner (1989) show 10 possible actions at initiation of traffic stop; 7 during stop; 11 at termination or exit = 770 different combinations termination ______________is more narrowly defined » e.g.,: the decision not to invoke legal sanctions e.g.,: when circumstances are favorable for doing so when may may have justification (legal basis) for making arrest arrest? issue citation? give warning? » legally, standard is for full enforcement of law » practically, it is unrealistic » several factors determine whether laws are several enforced… enforced… ____________________ » degree of bureaucracy degree » departmental polices attempt to direct & departmental control officer behavior control » behavior also influenced by informal behavior organizational culture organizational ___________________ » type of ______________ community influences type type of policing residents receive type _______________ » the way police are mobilized » demeanor & attitude Van Mannen’s “The Asshole” (1978) Van “I guess what our job really boils down to guess is not letting the assholes take over the city… I’m talking about those shitheads out to prove they can push everybody around. Those are the assholes we gotta deal with and take care of on patrol… You take the majority of what we do and it’s nothing more than asshole control” nothing » A veteran patrolman » Race » Gender Racial Profiling Racial Using race or ethnicity vs. behavior to Using initiate a vehicle or pedestrian stop and/ initiate or search » Legitimate for “BOLO” Research Research Need a benchmark » racial composition of jurisdiction » race of drivers driving on a road segment Estimates range from small to large Estimates disparities disparities » age » suspect-complainant relationship » type of offense » mental state of citizen » presence of others (officers & bystanders) (officers presence Individual Officer Variables Individual Officer » officer education » age & experience » officer race » officer gender Police Deviance Police Police sometimes engage in illegal Police behavior Deviant behavior more common » police deviance is behavior that violates some police standard standard Ethical, departmental, or legal Types of Deviance Types Barker & Carter (1994) divide into 2 (1994) Barker categories: categories: » ________________ - actions that injure, insult, reduce human dignity, create feelings of inferiority and/or violate legal rights inferiority » _________________- criminal & noncriminal behavior committed in course of normal work activities or under guise of officer’s authority activities 2 subcategories of occupational deviance… » police misconduct – a violation of department policies, procedures, rules, or regulations policies, » police corruption – forbidden acts involving misuse of officer’s official position for reward or gain gain e.g., bribes, free services, discounted products » other typologies discussed in text… Stages of Deviance Can be described as progression from less Can to more serious acts (Sherman, 1988) (Sherman, » 1) minor perks (free coffee, meals, dry cleaning) (free 1) minor » 2) bar-closing hours (stay until closing; free drinks) (stay 2) bar-closing » 3) regulative crimes (keeps $ found in traffic stop) (keeps 3) regulative » 4) gambling (accepting gambling payoffs) 4) gambling (accepting » 5) prostitution (accepting bribes from prostitutes/pimps) 5) prostitution (accepting » 6) narcotics (use, buying, selling; stealing) 6) narcotics (use, Barker’s (1996) Patterns of Corruption (1996) » » » corruption of authority (discounts, freebies) (discounts, kickbacks (receiving $, goods, services) (receiving opportunistic theft (arrestees, victims, crime scenes, unprotected property) property) » shakedowns ($, valuables from criminals / traffic offenders) ($, » protection of illegal activities (protection $ from vice operations or illegal companies) illegal » » » fixes (disposing of traffic tickets) (disposing direct criminal activities (burglary, robbery) (burglary, internal payoffs (selling work assignments, off-days, evidence, promotions) promotions) Gratuities: Pros & Cons of Gratuities: PROS CONS gestures of friendship & public support citizens thinks its unfair for public servants to accept freebies refusing is discourteous intent of gratuity is selfish & may take away protection from others promotes positive relations deserved as policing is risky businesses like police presence are given voluntarily encourages police to think they have special status & are deserving of benefits that others are not accepting gratuities is a “slippery slope” Deviant Officers Deviant NY Knapp Commission (1970) ID’d NY ID’d » __________________ – aggressively sought out corruption opportunities (prostitutes, gamblers, drug dealers) drug » __________________ – didn’t seek opportunities but accepted graft when opportunities arise opportunities Baker (1996) added » white knights – totally honest » straight shooters – honest but overlook others’ deviant acts deviant How much deviance is there? How Difficult to asses due to _______________ Difficult _______________ » ii.e., secrecy line officers maintain about activities, .e., from both public & police administrators from » Barker (1994) surveyed officers in 1 PD asking (1994) them # of officers in department that engaged in them » Crank (1998) reviewed two studies of 3 PDs (1 in Illinois; 2 in Ohio) in » iinterested in extent of racially- & gender-based nterested racially- gender-based harassment harassment The Persistence of Corruption The Has been & continues to be one of the Has most frequent problems faced by PDs most » four reasons for its persistence » 1) _______________________ for corruption » 2) influence of ______________________ 2) (community & political) (community » 3) citizens may be _____________ of some 3) kinds of police deviance kinds » 4) deviance can become _____________ ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course CRJU 311 taught by Professor Kaminski during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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