Chapter 7 - Field Operations, upload

Chapter 7 - Field Operations, upload - Field Operations...

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Unformatted text preview: Field Operations Field (Chap. 7) (Chap. Chapter 7 Outline Chapter The patrol function » historical development » patrol methods » patrol allocation patrol » selected research & patrol issues The investigative function » historical development » investigative allocation » selected research selected Field Operations Field “Operational” activities Two major functions? Two major » ___________________ » ___________________ Primary goals of patrol? » _______________ » _______________ » _______________ Patrol activities also may be grouped Patrol into 3 functions into » ________________ » ________________ » ________________ Organization of Patrol Organization # of officers: How many should a of jurisdiction have? jurisdiction » Typically based on ___________________ Some examples… Patrol Methods Patrol BJS 2007 Survey of Local LE Agencies BJS % of Units Assigned to Foot Patrol of Varies substantially by city » Foot patrol among 190 large cities in 1997 Min/max Min/max = Average = Average NYC = of units = foot » San Jose = San Research on Patrol Methods Research Benefits of one- vs. two-officer patrol? How common are 1-officer patrol units? » % of 1-officer patrol units in 190 large of municipal departments in 1997 municipal min/max min/max = average = average One-officer units - 2 studies in San Diego found: (Boysdstun et al., 1977; Kessler, 1985) (Boysdstun » made ________ arrests » __________resisting arrest problems » received _________citizen complaints » were ________expensive What about officer safety? Assessing the Risk Population ------Population 900,000 774,000 126,000 Total 1 PO Veh. 2 PO Veh. Total 1 PO Veh. 2 PO Veh. # Killed 636 552 84 # Killed 636 552 84 Percent 100% 87% 13% Percent .071% .067% Ratio (N) Ratio (%) 6.57 6.69 Ratio (%) 1.06 Studies on Officer Safety & 1-Officer Units Studies Simple Analyses Assaults Injuries Murders Boydstun et al., 1977 Little, 1984 Wilson et al., 1990 Choi et al., 1993 Kaminski & Sorensen, 1995 Fridell & Pate, 1995; 2001 Kaminski, 2002 no effect Multiple Regression Injuries Murders no effect risk + risk + risk + risk – risk + risk + risk – no effect Foot patrol – two major evaluations » ___________Foot Patrol Experiment (1981) (1981) ___________Foot Newark & 28 other cities in New Jersey » ______________Foot Patrol Program (1982) (1982) ______________Foot 14 neighborhoods in Flint, Michigan » What were effects on crime? Use of Patrol Resources Use How many officers does a department How need to police a jurisdiction effectively? need How should officers be allocated over How shifts & beats? shifts Resource Determination Resource Two traditional ways for determining # Two of personnel of » _____________ » _____________ Does adding more police reduce crime? » review of 36 studies by Marvell & Moody review (1996) found ________________ for an effect (1996) » their own research found that as levels of their police increased, ___________________ police » _________________________________ Allocation of Patrol Allocation Standard formula developed by O.W. Standard Wilson in 1941 Wilson » _______________& __________________ Workloads vary by time & place » usually greatest during evening shift usually » size of patrol areas (beats, sectors) created to size equalize workloads (______________) Selected Research on Patrol Selected _______________ (MS) Preventive Patrol _______________ (MS) Experiment (Kelling et al., 1974) (Kelling » Does uncommitted time spent on routine Does preventive patrol prevent crime? preventive Police Police Foundation funded 1-yr study to find out (10/72 – 9/73) (10/72 Results? » based on citizen surveys & agency data, _____ _____________ crime & reports of crime to police feelings of safety satisfaction with police & services police response time to calls for service Research on ______________ Research What were common beliefs about fast What response time to calls for service? 2nd study in KCPD by Pate et al. (1976) found found » ____________ to # of arrests at the scene » ____________ to satisfaction than knowing ____________ approximate ETA approximate » led to prioritization of calls Research on ________________ Research Rather than random preventive patrol, Rather departments began to direct officers to problem areas problem ____________________Patrol Experiment ____________________Patrol (Sherman et al. 1989; 1995) (Sherman » 64% of 911 calls came from 5% of address » 47% burglary calls came from 11% of addresses Crime Prevention Research Review Crime Some terminology: » ______________ – movement of criminal activity ______________ outside of targeted area (vs. suppression) » ______________ – beneficial spillover into areas ______________ adjacent to targeted area adjacent » ______________ – temporary continued crime ______________ reduction after withdrawal of police activity reduction What’s A Hot Spot? _________________________________ _________________________________ » (Harries, K. 1999) We might think of a hot spot as a greater We than expected # of events within an area over some specified period of time over 29 Findings Findings Findings (cont.) Findings High-Speed Pursuits High-Speed Occurs when police attempt to stop a Occurs vehicle and suspect flees at a high rate of speed of # of vehicle pursuits estimated at about of ___________ annually with 20,000 injuries (Charles et al., 1992) (Charles Alpert (1997) studied pursuits in several Alpert PDs & conducted national survey of 436 agencies agencies Case Study – Pennsylvania 2004 Case 2,233 pursuits » Reason for initiation 47%: traffic offense (speeding, stop sign) 17%: stolen or suspected stolen vehicle 14%: felony criminal charges » 739 (33%) resulted in 956 crashes 739 (33%) » 253 (34%) resulted in injuries to officers, 253 violators, or uninvolved persons violators, » 11 (.5%) deaths (1 PO; 1 uninvolved person) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Administration No. of Pursuit -related Deaths, 1994 – 98 (N = 1,784) Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Totals S uspects 283 249 267 194 198 1,191 (67%) Bystanders 102 127 118 111 114 572 (32%) Officers 3 10 5 1 2 21 (1%) Pursuit Policies Nationally (BJS, 2000) (BJS, Discouragement Restrictive Judgmental Foot Pursuits Foot Little known about foot pursuits » Kaminski, R.J., DiGiovanni, C. & Downs, R. 2004. The Use of Force Kaminski, Between the Police and Persons with Impaired Judgment. Police Quarterly 7(3):311-338. 7(3):311-338. In In 8% of 2,048 arrests, 168 suspects fled on foot and/or vehicle (but most foot) and/or Pursuit Pursuit increased the odds of use of physical force vs. verbal tactics by 345% (p ≤ .000) vs. IACP Model Policy IACP Kaminski, Robert J. 2007. Police Foot Pursuits and Officer Safety. Law Enforcement Executive Forum 7(3):59-72. Law Table 7. Intentional Injuries Causing Deputies to Miss Work and/or to Work in a Reduced Capacity, Career Estimates Months Weeks Days Sum (days) Missed Work Total Time # Deputies 7 2 6 2 21 12 273 16 Mean 3.50 3.00 1.75 17.06 Worked in Reduced Capacity Total Time # Deputies Mean 10 3 3.33 7 2 3.50 9 3 3.00 358 8 44.75 Notes: Some deputies may have both missed work and worked in a reduced capacity, while others may have only missed work or only worked in a reduced capacity. When calculating the total number of days, a 30-day month and 7-day week were assumed. Table 9. Accidental Injuries Causing Deputies to Miss Work and/or to Work in a Reduced Capacity, Career-based Estimates Months Weeks Days Sum (days) Missed Work Total Time # Deputies 13 5 12 3 22 12 496 20 Mean 2.60 4.00 1.83 24.80 Worked in Reduced Capacity Total Time # Deputies Mean 14 5 2.80 19 8 2.38 22 5 4.40 575 18 31.94 Notes: Some deputies may have both missed work and worked in a reduced capacity, while others may have only missed work or only worked in a reduced capacity. When calculating the total number of days, a 30-day month and 7-day week were assumed. on yer own » The investigative function ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course CRJU 311 taught by Professor Kaminski during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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