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Chapter 3 - Community Policing Upload Abbreviated

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Unformatted text preview: Community Policing Community (Chap. 3) (Chap. Chapter 3 Outline Chapter Transition from professional model to Transition community policing community » Team policing, CPTED, foot patrol, etc. Defining community policing Problem–oriented policing Rhetoric or reality – how much CP is Rhetoric there? there? Post 9/11 Review Review Early policing characterized by: » politics, special interests & corruption politics, Reform movement emphasized honesty & Reform efficiency efficiency Led to beginnings of professionalism Civil Unrest Civil 1960s-1970s = climate of rebellion, confrontation, & social upheaval 1960s-1970s The Move to Community Policing (CP) The Two broad factors led to search for Two broad different ways of “doing business” different » _____________________________________ _____________________________________ » _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Led to experimentation with CP in Led 1980s & huge surge in its popularity in 1990s 1990s Policing Research Policing » Office of Law Enforcement Assistance, 1965-68 » Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, 1968-1982 » Office of Justice Programs, 1984+ • • • National Institute of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance Bureau of Justice Statistics » Many CJ departments created across U.S. contributed to Many knowledge base about policing (SUNYA, 1969) (SUNYA, » Police also provided financial support to pursue higher ed » Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 1994+ Growing emphasis on ______________ Growing ________ relations ________ Increased Emphasis on _____________ ____________ ____________ Crime Prevention (contd.) (contd.) Development of concepts of “____________” Development & CPTED in 1970s CPTED » _______________________________________ Defensible Space Defensible Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City (1972) Creating Defensible Space (1996), free PDF at: http://www.huduser.org/publications/pubasst/defensib.html Other resources: http://www.defensiblespace.com/start.htm Newman focused on structure & informal Newman social control social » Territoriality, surveillance, access control Principles Principles Territoriality, surveillance, access control Overarching principle for preventing crime is _______ Overarching _____________________ _____________________ _____________ Space Public Semi-public Semi-private Private #2 - ______________ » Design spaces to increase visibility of areas Design by residents & pedestrians by #3 - __________________ » Clearly indicate public routes & discourage Clearly access to private areas with structural elements elements Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Environmental C. Ray Jeffery (1971) » Similar to Defensible Space, but more Similar Defensible comprehensive (not limited to the “built environment”) comprehensive multi-disciplinary (psychology, biology) theoretical __________________ __________________ Began in late 1960s; “fad” of the 1970s Involved decentralization & increased Involved community participation community Evaluations suggest implementation failed, Evaluations but led to COP Foot Patrol Foot Resurgence in interest in foot patrol Research Studies Research Police Foundation (1981) study of foot Police patrol in Newark, NJ patrol 2nd study in Flint, Michigan (Trojanowicz, 1982) (Trojanowicz, Precursors to Community Policing Precursors Foot patrol Police-community relations Crime prevention w/ community Team policing Community policing Federal Funding for CP Federal __________________________ National Institute of Justice funding State government funding & support Regional police training academies Regional Community Policing Institutes Examples of Training Examples Ethics and Integrity Problem-Solving Community Partnerships Organizational Change Management Strategic Implementation Rural Community Policing Technology for Community Policing Violence Prevention Cultural Diversity Conflict Resolution Crime Analysis & Mapping Conducting Community Surveys Understanding Community Policing Community Mobilization So, community policing is a big deal, So, but what is it? but _________ (1988) observed, although _________ nearly universally “said” to be important: important: » implementation of CP has been very uneven » it means different things to different people public relations campaigns mini-stations re-scaled patrol beats liaison with ethnic groups neighborhood watch foot patrols, etc. ________(1999) IDs 3 major dimensions ________(1999) of CP & common elements within each of » Philosophical » Strategic » Tactical » Organization Not Not a formal dimension of CP per se, but crucial to per but its successful implementation its T ABLE 1. S tudy C itation B ayley (1994) T heory and Research on the Dimensions of Community Policing D imensions D escription D efined community policing using four dimensions: consultation, a daptation, mobilization, and problem solving. 4 B ratton (1996) 3 D efined community policing as “the three p’s”: partnership, p roblem -solving, and prevention. C ordner (1997); C ordner and S carborough (1997) 4 O perationalized community policing using four dimensions: p hilosophical, strategic, tactical, and organizational. 4 F ormed four additive community policing indices measuring patrol o fficer activities, management activities, citizen activities, and o rganizational activities. Computed Cronbach’s alpha but did not test d imensionality. M aguire and K atz (1997) Source: Maguire & Mastrofski, 2000, Police Quarterly, 3(1):4-45. (1) Phisolophical Dimension (1) Citizen Input Broad Police Function Personalized Service (2) Strategic Dimension (2) Reoriented operations Geographic focus Crime prevention emphasis (2) Strategic Dimension (cont.) (2) Geographic focus Crime prevention emphasis (3) Tactical Dimension (3) Positive interactions Partnerships Problem-oriented policing (POP) / Problem-oriented problem solving problem (3) Tactical Dimension (cont.) (3) Problem-oriented policing (POP) » POP developed by Herman Goldstein (1979) » “be problem-oriented, not incident oriented” POP = a more systematic method for: » Identification of recurring problems » Analysis of problems » Response to problems » Evaluation of effectiveness of response SARA SARA _________: identify & select a recurring identify problem of concern to community & police problem _________: analyze the problem _________: respond to the problem _________: assess the impact Crime or Problem-Analysis Triangle Crime Source: http://www.popcenter.org/about-triangle.htm (4) ___________Dimension (4) Decentralization Flattening De-specialization Teams Civilianization Principles management & information CP vs. POP CP The community policing model includes The both CP & POP both » could do one without other » but each can be more effective when used but together together ________________more ________________more effective with community support & participation support ________________ can be more effective when ________________ using problem-solving methods using How Much CP & How Effective? How Difficult to answer » No single definition of CP or universal set of No agreed upon elements agreed » It has been implemented differently in different It places places » Few rigorous evaluations of effects of CP Homeland Security Era of Policing Post-9/11 Policing Post-9/11 Greater involvement of local LEAs in Greater protecting homeland protecting » Emphasis on __________________________ » Creation of counterterrorism units » Build on partnerships with community to Build ________________(CP) ________________(CP) » Collaboration among LEAs & other agencies Collaboration including FBI for sharing of info to ID threats including ____________________ (ILP) ____________________ Timely (< 24hrs), useful information for ), dealing with crime & terrorism dealing » Surveillance » Covert operations » Financial records » Electronic eavesdropping » Media, internet, interrogations ...
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