Chapter 2- History of Policing Upload

Chapter 2- History of Policing Upload - History of Policing...

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Unformatted text preview: History of Policing History Chapter 2 5 Eras of American Policing Eras Pre-modern ≈ 1600s – mid 1800s Pre-modern 1600s Modern » Political ≈ mid-1800s – early 1900s Political mid-1800s » Reform/Professional = early 1900s – late 1960s Reform/Professional early » Community = 1970s Community » Homeland Security ≈ 2001 Homeland Early History of Policing Early ___________ was one of earliest methods was » essentially, a system of mutual aid In 12th century England, ___________ ___________ system for maintaining order developed system » a form of communal policing to maintain the form king’s peace king’s » based on organization of ________ (10 families) based ________ (10 » 10 tithings were grouped into a ___________ 10 ___________ » several hundreds were grouped into ________ » the supervisor of each shire was the ________ Constables & Sheriffs were responsible Constables for order & the call of the “hue & cry” » iif in earshot, lawfully obligated to join in a f posse-comitatas posse-comitatas » In 1285 constables were appointed to assist In the sheriff the Among Among other things, drafted watchmen & supervised the __________ __________ » Justice of the Peace established in early or mid-1300s mid-1300s » Basic system was in place until 1800s » System inadequate to deal with growing urban System populations, crime & disorder populations, Arresting criminals often left to private Arresting ______________ ______________ » » » Essentially bounty hunters Many corrupt Many Most notorious was Jonathan Wild (1683-1725) 1740s London, Bow Street Runners formed by 1740s magistrate Henry Fielding magistrate River Police, aka Marine Police Force, formed in 1798 Bow Street Horse Patrol established 1805 Bow 1829, British Home Secretary __________ 1829, _______ helped pass the Metropolitan Police Act Police Elements of ‘Peelian Principles’ » Basic mission is prevent crime & disorder » Requires public approval, respect & cooperation » Use force as a last resort » Should enforce laws impartially » Organized along a military model Policing in the United States Policing Precursor to Modern American Policing = _____________ Policing South Carolina – Background of Slave Patrols Slave Few slaves in SC during late 1600s, but Few by 1708, slaves outnumbered white colonists colonists Two major reasons for eventual Two development of slave patrols development » (1) Escapees » (2) Fear Slave Control Slave In response to runaway slaves, fears of In slave rebellion, & ‘huckstering’, colonists established a system of controls established Night Watch Night Established in 1671 in ___________ » Although developed in response to many Although perceived threats, it formed the beginnings of urban slave patrols urban 1690 - “Act for the Better Ordering of 1690 Slaves” Slaves” Made capturing & returning slaves Made without passes a required duty required First Slave Patrol First Created _____, in response to fears of a Created Spanish invasion & rumors of a slave insurrection insurrection Two military forces were needed » A militia to repel foreign enemies » A patrol (“Patrollers”) to leave behind as a patrol deterrent against slave revolts 1800s 1800s In 1839, due to urbanization & decline of In militia militia » “the power to organize, detail, enforce, and the perform patrol duty in incorporated South Carolina towns passed from local militia company captains to the _______________ of the said towns and villages…” towns Virginia Virginia Virginia - 1st formal slave patrols instituted in 1727 instituted North Carolina - 1st formal groups resembling patrols (“searchers”) appeared in 1753 appeared Post – Slave Patrol Era Post Slave patrols & constables eventually Slave gave way to paid police forces gave » In Richmond, Raleigh, & Charleston, police In performed many functions, but until the Civil War, their primary task was slave control War, Emergence of Modern Policing in U.S. Emergence English colonists in America brought English with them their system of policing with Sheriff, justice of the peace, constable, nightwatch Early State & Federal LEAs Early (1) Development of State Police Massachusetts State Police (1865) Pennsylvania State Police (1905) (2) Early Federal Police (2) U.S. Marshal Service, _______ Revenue Cutter Service, _______ Postal Inspection Service, _______ Secret Service, _______ » “Secret Service Division” of the Dept. of the Secret Treasury Treasury Federal Bureau of Investigation, _____ ...
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