Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1: Structure &
Organization of Policing
Organization Structure & Organization of Police
Structure Because of a tradition of local political
control, American policing is highly
fragmented & decentralized
Organization is based on geographical &
political structure of government
political 3 Broad Types of Policing
Broad public police private police citizen-police Bounty Hunters H.R. 2621 – “Bounty Hunter
Responsibility Act of 2005”
Responsibility Addresses whether they should be:
» allowed employment if they have a felony conviction
» required to complete a State-approved basic
» required to complete a handgun training course
» required to submit to a fingerprint-based criminal
Proponents Without bounty hunters » _______________________________
» _______________________________ It’s mostly “freelance” bounty hunters that
It’s cause occasional problems
» ______________________________ Authority given by Supreme Court ruling
Authority Taylor v. Taintor in 1872
Opponents Bounty hunting system antiquated Developed a few years after Civil War » US relatively unpopulated
» West was just starting to be settled w/ little LE
» City police were inadequate, ill-equipped, & poorly
» Little cooperation between jurisdictions &
communication was poor
» There was no FBI with cross-jurisdictional authority
» Not subject to the same restrictions on tactics that
public police are
public Number of LEAs & Officers in U.S.
Number How many law enforcement agencies? How many full time sworn officers?
How Number of LEAs & LEOs in U.S.
Number How many law enforcement agencies?
» ≈ ___________
» In 2004
_________ state & local agencies _____ Federal agencies Total = ______________ How many full time sworn officers?
» ≈ ____________
» _________ state & local officers (> 1 million ‘employees’)
_________ Total = __________ Homeland Security Act of 2002 Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Department created in Nov. 2002
created » llegislation transferred all or part of 22 existing
agencies to DHS, e.g.:
agencies Secret Service Federal Protective Service Customs Service Border Patrol Immigration and Naturalization Service Coast Guard Transportation Security Administration Homeland Security Agencies & Functions
Homeland Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) prepares the nation for hazards,
manages Federal response and recovery efforts following any national incident.
Transportation Security Administration (TSA) protects the nation's transportation
U.S. Customs and Border Protection protects our nation’s borders to prevent
terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) identifies & remedies vulnerabilities
in the nation’s border, economic, transportation and infrastructure security.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services is responsible for the administration of
immigration and naturalization adjudication functions and establishing
immigration services policies and priorities.
U.S. Coast Guard protects the public, the environment, and U.S. economic
interests—in the nation’s ports and waterways, along the coast, on international
waters, or in any maritime region as required to support national security.
U.S. Secret Service protects the President and other high-level officials and
investigates counterfeiting and other financial crimes, including financial
institution fraud, identity theft, computer fraud; and computer-based attacks on
financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure.
Federal Protective Service (FPS) provides law enforcement and security services
to all federally owned and leased facilities.
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) provides training to law
enforcement professionals to help them fulfill their responsibilities safely and
proficiently. State & Local Agencies
State What are state LEAs? » State police (n = )
» Highway patrol (n = )
» State investigative agencies (e.g., SLED) What Are Local LEAs?
What Everything else not federal or state. For
» _____________ police departments
_____________ police departments
_____________ State Law Enforcement Agencies
(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics) 69% were patrol officers, 11% investigators
17 employed 1,000 or more FT sworn officers
4 of the largest, 2004
» ___________ Highway Patrol - 7,085 FT sworn
___________ Police – 4,667
___________ State Police - 4,200
___________ Department of Public Safety - 3,437 Which state does not have a primary or general
service state LEA?
service Local Police
Local (source: Bureau of Justice Statistics) 12,766 general purpose local police
departments, Largest Municipal Agency?
New York City PD
Los Angeles PD
DC Metro PD Full-time S
3,800 Local LEAs with
County-Wide Jurisdictions ___________ offices
___________ (n = 3,067)
(n ___________ offices (n ≈ 513)
(n ___________ departments (n = 56)
» Essentially municipal police that operate on
a county-wide basis
county-wide County Sheriff - 5 Largest Agencies
(source: Bureau of Justice Statistics) Some Interesting Facts about Sheriffs’ Offices? Typically are “county” sheriffs Some states do not have county or city
sheriffs Departments of Public Safety (local)
Departments Special Jurisdiction Police
Constables Consolidated & Regional Police Tribal Police ...
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- Spring '11
- The Land, United States Department of Homeland Security, law enforcement agencies