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KIN 3513 Exam 3

KIN 3513 Exam 3 - C hapter 9 Attention as a L imited...

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Chapter 9: Attention as a Limited Capacity Resource Attention and Multiple Task Performance Attention refers to characteristics associated with o Consciousness o Awareness o Cognitive effort If there’s high cognitive effort, you need to be aware and conscious Performance of Skills and Limitations o Simultaneous performance of Multiple Skills o Detection of Relevant Information in the Environment o Ignoring Irrelevant Information in the Environment Performing simultaneously more than one task o No measurable detrimental effects o Deteriorated task performance Question why sometimes detrimental effects and other times no effects Ex: driving while talking on the phone- you’re driving could be affected by listening to person on the other line Possible answer relates to attention as a performance-limiting factor. o Attention becomes a resource Attention Theories Filter theories (a.k.a. bottleneck theories) o Stimuli resulting in response(s) are processed serially. You have to go through each stage sequentially and you have to actually finish the first stage to get to the next stage A filter in one of the stages of processing results in limitation on multiple task performance. Filter= limits what task will be performed Theories differ in the location of the filter. Stimuli and information from the environement Detection (with filter in it so only the important part is passed through to identification) identification response selesction response preparation response Resource Capacity Theories o There are limited resources which limit performance of multiple tasks If resource capacity limits are not exceeded performance of multiple tasks can occur. If resource capacity limits are exceeded performance deteriorates on one or more tasks 1
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Central Resource Capacity Theories o Analogy= bank o One central attention resource (i.e., CNS) Ex: you only have ONE bank account o Activity requires attention Everything you buy needs money o Activities compete for the demanded resources to perform optimally Ex: what kind of resources are necessary to do this particular task and perform it optimally? o Resource is flexible (so the resource can be used in different activities) At the end of the month, there is LESS money than there was at the beginning. In these resource theories… for ex: if its 3 am after st. patrick’s day your resources are depleted o o Kahneman’s Attention Theory – most used theory!!!! Is an example of a Central Resource Capacity Theory There is one attention capacity resource Attention capacity limits are flexible Attention resources are not constraint to one task You can use it for many different tasks- theres NO constraint that says you can only use that for this task and this for this task Equates attention to “cognitive effort” Less cog effort means you need less attention and vice versa Arousal level
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KIN 3513 Exam 3 - C hapter 9 Attention as a L imited...

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