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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Demonstration and Verbal Instruction Role of I nstruction • Instructions serve two primary goals o Introduce a learner to a skill Communicate a general idea of goal or strategy o Once skill is introduced, skill refinement is the goal Develop the learners skill level I nstruction • Effective methods of providing instructions o Effective methods to help a person to learn motor skills depends The skill level The instructional goals • Depends on o Task goal o Environment Demonstration • Demonstration (Modeling/Observational learning) o Instructional strategy that encourages observational learning “A picture is worth a thousand words” The learner acquires the capability for action by observing others Demonstrated “live” by others Demonstrated through visual aids • When should we use demonstration as an instructional strategy instead of some other means of providing information about how to perform a skill? o What does the observer perceive from a demonstration The invariant features of the coordinated movement pattern Supported by two types of research • Visual perception of motion • Research into the influence of demonstration on a complex skill o When is demonstration most effective I t has been shown that demonstration leads to better skill learning than other instruction forms when • The skill being learned requires the acquisition of a new pattern of coordination 1 Demonstrator should perform the skill “correctly” • The observer perceives invariant movement patterns of a demonstrated skill o these patterns will be observed only with a correctly performed skill • The observer perceives information about the strategy used by the model to solve movement problems o Focus on critical/relevant features • Beginners can derive learning benefits from observing other beginners practice a skill • Discourages the imitation of a skilled model’s performance • Encourages the observer to engage in more active problem solving • When should demonstration be given? o Demonstration should precede practice • How frequently should demonstration be given? o Instructor should continue to demonstrate during practice as frequently as necessary • How does observing demonstrations influence learning? o Cognitive Mediation Theory Bandura’s (1986) theory of modeling and social learning • Observed movement information of the model is translated into a symbolic memory code • The memory code allows rehearsal and organization of the information • The memory code serves as a guide for performance • For performance the code needs to be translated back to codes useful to the motor system (4) Subprocesses: • Attention process o Observation and extraction of important information • Retention process o Transformation and restructuring of observations into symbolic (memory) codes which gets stored in memory • Behavior reproduction process o Memory codes of the model action are translated into physical action...
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- Spring '08
- Skill, Motor control, augmented feedback, pract ice