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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Demonstration and Verbal Instruction Role of I nstruction Instructions serve two primary goals o Introduce a learner to a skill Communicate a general idea of goal or strategy o Once skill is introduced, skill refinement is the goal Develop the learners skill level I nstruction Effective methods of providing instructions o Effective methods to help a person to learn motor skills depends The skill level The instructional goals Depends on o Task goal o Environment Demonstration Demonstration (Modeling/Observational learning) o Instructional strategy that encourages observational learning A picture is worth a thousand words The learner acquires the capability for action by observing others Demonstrated live by others Demonstrated through visual aids When should we use demonstration as an instructional strategy instead of some other means of providing information about how to perform a skill? o What does the observer perceive from a demonstration The invariant features of the coordinated movement pattern Supported by two types of research Visual perception of motion Research into the influence of demonstration on a complex skill o When is demonstration most effective I t has been shown that demonstration leads to better skill learning than other instruction forms when The skill being learned requires the acquisition of a new pattern of coordination 1 Demonstrator should perform the skill correctly The observer perceives invariant movement patterns of a demonstrated skill o these patterns will be observed only with a correctly performed skill The observer perceives information about the strategy used by the model to solve movement problems o Focus on critical/relevant features Beginners can derive learning benefits from observing other beginners practice a skill Discourages the imitation of a skilled models performance Encourages the observer to engage in more active problem solving When should demonstration be given? o Demonstration should precede practice How frequently should demonstration be given? o Instructor should continue to demonstrate during practice as frequently as necessary How does observing demonstrations influence learning? o Cognitive Mediation Theory Banduras (1986) theory of modeling and social learning Observed movement information of the model is translated into a symbolic memory code The memory code allows rehearsal and organization of the information The memory code serves as a guide for performance For performance the code needs to be translated back to codes useful to the motor system (4) Subprocesses: Attention process o Observation and extraction of important information Retention process o Transformation and restructuring of observations into symbolic (memory) codes which gets stored in memory Behavior reproduction process o Memory codes of the model action are translated into physical action...
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- Spring '08