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PSYC 3082 Test 3 Notes

PSYC 3082 Test 3 Notes - Chapter13 Wednesday 11:50 AM...

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Chapter 13 Wednesday, September 05, 2007 11:50 AM Chapter 13 Developmental, Childhood, and Cognitive Disorders   Perspectives on Developmental Disorders 1. Normal vs. Abnormal Development 2. Developmental Psychopathology Study of how disorders arise and change with time Childhood is associated with significant developmental changes Disruption of early skills will likely disrupt development of later skills 3. Developmental Disorders Diagnosed first in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disorders Autism and Asperger’s Disorder Mental retardation   Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview  4. Nature of ADHD Central features – Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity Associated with behavioral, cognitive, social, and academic problems 5. DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR Symptom Clusters Cluster 1 – Symptoms of inattention  Cluster 2 – Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity cluster Either cluster 1 or 2 must be present for a diagnosis symptoms must be present prior to age 7   ADHD: Facts and Statistics  6. Prevalence Occurs in 4%-12% of children who are 6 to 12 years of age Symptoms are usually present around age 3 or 4 2/3 of children with ADHD have problems as adults 7. Gender Differences  Boys outnumber girls 4 to 1 8. Cultural Factors  Probability of ADHD diagnosis is greatest in the United States    ADHD: Biological Contributions  9. Genetic Contributions ADHD runs in families Familial ADHD may involve deficits on chromosome 20 10. Neurobiological Contributions: Brain Dysfunction and Damage  Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia Right hemisphere malfunction Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning Yet to identify a precise neurobiological mechanism for ADHD 11. The Role of Toxins
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Allergens and food additives do not appear to cause ADHD Maternal smoking increases risk of having a child with ADHD   ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions 12. Psychosocial Factors Can Influence the Disorder Itself Constant negative feedback from teachers, parents, and peers Peer rejection and resulting social isolation Such factors foster low self-image    Biological Treatment of ADHD 13. Goal of Biological Treatments To reduce impulsivity/hyperactivity and to improve attention 14. Stimulant Medications Reduce the core symptoms of ADHD in 70% of cases Examples include Concerta, Adderall, Metadate, Ritalin, Dexedrine, etc.
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PSYC 3082 Test 3 Notes - Chapter13 Wednesday 11:50 AM...

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