Comparative Vertebrate Introduction

Comparative Vertebrate Introduction - Chordates Four...

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Chordates Four qualities: -Pharyngeal slits -Notochord -Dorsal hollow nerve cord -Postnatal tail Vertebrates -Have both a cranium and vertebral column What does it mean to be comparative? -Differences and similarities along evolutionary path among vertebrates Why and how things evolved Functional morphology - discipline that relates structure to its function Evolutionary morphology - the study of the relationship between the change in anatomical design through time and the processes responsible for this change Structure contributes to the design by the possibilities it creates Evolution contributes to the design by favored structures it preserves
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History of Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Georges Cuvier 1769-1832 -Father of comparative vertebrate anatomy -Believed organisms must be understood as functional wholes -Looked at structures within organisms to understand functionality of the organism; defines and regulates function -Structure and function are inter-related -Believed if an animal were altered beyond a certain limit, harmony among parts would be destroyed, function would fail and animals would no longer be viable -Not evolutionary biologist ; species completely immutable -Ruled out evolution Richard Owen 1804-1892 -Brought idea of homology (similarities) -Not evolutionary biologist -Archetype (general body plan that was modified; biological blueprints) Carl von Linne 1707-1778 -Binomial nomenclature system for naming plants and animals (taxonomy) -Thought species were immutable -Believed in hierarchy of species “latter of life” idea.i.e fishes below humans Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck 1744-1829 -Believed organism changed over time -Mechanism of change (inheritance of acquired characteristics) -Idea giraffe started as horse and stretch neck to eat leaves from trees, this trait of enhance neck passes to offspring -Scale of nature primitive and derived -First/most vocal in idea of evolution Alfred Russel Wallace 1823-1913 -1858 Evolution by Natural Selection (co-author with Darwin) -Paper not received with great fanfare
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Comparative Vertebrate Introduction - Chordates Four...

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