2 levels of org

2 levels of org - Timescale of analysis has implications...

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1/26/11 1 Genes and their environments Often a “cake” metaphor used to relate the two - Genes as recipe (blueprint) for development - Experience as ingredients for development - Implication of dichotomy The cake metaphor is problematic. .. 1 Cloned kitties 2 developmental cascade Genes and their environments What’s in a gene’s environment? The question is not one of nature versus nurture Psychobiologists study development in terms of multiple interacting inFuences 3
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1/26/11 2 Genes and their environments 4 Multicausality Example: The “A not B” error 5 A moment of methods Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) Extraneous variable Confounding variable (yikes) 6
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1/26/11 3 Nested timescales Moment-to-moment (real time) - Learning, social interaction Developmental time (months, years) - Ontogenetic stages Evolutionary time
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Unformatted text preview: Timescale of analysis has implications for amount of continuity/discontinuity seen in development 7 Continuity and discontinuity Discontinuity at one timescale may be due to discontinuous processes at another timescale 8 Integrating timescales • Proximate cause-Developmental, mechanistic explanation-“How” question: What are the physiological and behavioral mechanisms at work? • Ultimate cause-Evolutionary explanation-“Why” question: What is the adaptive signiFcance of the behavior? 9 1/26/11 4 Barriers to integration • “Levels of analysis chauvinism”-reiFcation of biology and culture (Japanese macaque example) • Confusion of ultimate with proximate explanations-Nominal fallacy: a description becomes an explanation (attachment example)-usually teleological 10...
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This note was uploaded on 06/01/2011 for the course PSYCH 2090 taught by Professor Goldstein, m during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

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2 levels of org - Timescale of analysis has implications...

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