2 levels of org - Timescale of analysis has implications...

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1/26/11 1 Genes and their environments Often a “cake” metaphor used to relate the two - Genes as recipe (blueprint) for development - Experience as ingredients for development - Implication of dichotomy The cake metaphor is problematic. .. 1 Cloned kitties 2 developmental cascade Genes and their environments What’s in a gene’s environment? The question is not one of nature versus nurture Psychobiologists study development in terms of multiple interacting inFuences 3
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1/26/11 2 Genes and their environments 4 Multicausality Example: The “A not B” error 5 A moment of methods Independent variable (IV) Dependent variable (DV) Extraneous variable Confounding variable (yikes) 6
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1/26/11 3 Nested timescales Moment-to-moment (real time) - Learning, social interaction Developmental time (months, years) - Ontogenetic stages Evolutionary time
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Unformatted text preview: Timescale of analysis has implications for amount of continuity/discontinuity seen in development 7 Continuity and discontinuity Discontinuity at one timescale may be due to discontinuous processes at another timescale 8 Integrating timescales Proximate cause-Developmental, mechanistic explanation-How question: What are the physiological and behavioral mechanisms at work? Ultimate cause-Evolutionary explanation-Why question: What is the adaptive signiFcance of the behavior? 9 1/26/11 4 Barriers to integration Levels of analysis chauvinism-reiFcation of biology and culture (Japanese macaque example) Confusion of ultimate with proximate explanations-Nominal fallacy: a description becomes an explanation (attachment example)-usually teleological 10...
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2 levels of org - Timescale of analysis has implications...

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