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PSY 236 Noteschp3 - PSY 236 Notes-Chapter 3 Psychologys...

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PSY 236 Notes-Chapter 3 Psychology’s Emphasis on Method offer are methods for generating research aimed at these questions-no answers never really expect to reach a final answer to any question psychologist are sensitive and even self-conscious about the research methodology Scientific Education and Technical Teaching technical training conveys what is already know about a subject so that the knowledge can be applied o scientific teaches you to explore the unknown The explorations of the unknown is called research Quality of Data is your data reliable are the data valid are the data generalizable Reliability: o Measurements that reflect what you are trying to assess and are not affected by anything else o Mesurement error- the cumalutive effect of such extraneous influences- less there is the more reliable the data is o State-persons mood; Trait-persons general o Can you get the same result more than once? o Every measurement includes a certain amount of error o Four things can undermine reliability- 1: low precision 2:state of the participant in the study might vary for reasons that have nothing to dow the study itself 3: state of the experimenter (come well rested and attentive) participants may respond to the experimenter different depending on factors like sex, race,etc 4: environment in which the study is done-mishaps like fire alarms, arguments, etc o How to improve reliability- have someone double check all measuresments, use a constant, scripted procedure for all participants, follow research protocol, measure something that is important instead of something trivial, any domain in aggregation or averaging the measurements-take as many as you can o Spearman-Brown Formula in psychometrics, random errors tend to cancel one another out- the more error filled your measurements are the more you need Validity o The degree to which a measurement actually reflects what one thinks or hopes it does o For a measure to be valid it must be reliable but a reliable measure is not necessarily valid o Reliability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for validity
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o The concept seems to invoke a notion of ultimate truth
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