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Unformatted text preview: 1) Challenge to personality research: Situationist Critique a. People that argue for the situationist postion suggested that perhaps personality does not exist-led to the decline in the study of personality b. Says there are no such stable individual differences that psychologist thought they observed c. Suggested that the laypersons worldview- one where we could count on people to behave in similar and predictable ways across situation was based on an illusion. d. there was no cross-situationally consistent personality that we carried with us. just believed we acted in this consistent way e. that everything we do is driven by features of the immediate situation, and there is very little stability in our behavior from one situation to the next. 2) Personality Psychology Focuses a. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors are like everyone else in some ways i. there are certain features that are characteristic of all humans b. we are all like some other people i. share characteristics with some but not all other people c. in some ways we are like nobody else i. interesting and very important but hard to study d. Personality psych often focuses on the middle level-the ways we are like some people and different from others-concept of personality traits comes in 3) Personality Trait a. Enduring disposition-that vary across individuals-of an individual to act, feel, or think in a consistent manner in many different situations i. There are indiv. Differences in the tendency or probability to act in a certain way b. personality characteristics that are most salient-stand out-to others are often the ones that differ across individuals (personality traits) c. these dispositions are thought to influence behavior only in appropriate situations. d. concept of personality traits does not require that people always act in accordance with their dispositions; only when it is appropriate. 4) Trait Theory a. People can be described in terms of their levels on valid enduring dispositions or traits b. Parts of Theory i. traits are real and that they are useful for describing people. ii. Individual differences in these traits can predict a substantial proportion of variance in behavior-predict behavior in specific situations iii. traits (and the behaviors that they influence) are relatively consistent across situations iv. traits and behaviors should be relatively stable over time. 1. Personality can develop with age but there is some stability c. Threat to Theory i. Book by Walter Mischel in 1968- Personality and Assessment 1. Reviewed evidence for the cross-situational consistency of personality traits ii. he pointed out if you simply asked people to describe their personality in different situations or if you asked them how consistent they were across situations, most people believed that they were in fact very consistent 1. However, if you actually observed behavior over time and across situations, the stabilities were quite low 2. Max correlation was .30-smallMax correlation was ....
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- Spring '11