Psyc_351_Section_40_-_Summer_2011_-_Class_2_-_Elicited_Behavior

Psyc_351_Section_40_-_Summer_2011_-_Class_2_-_Elicited_Behavior

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5/4/2011 1 ELICITED BEHAVIOR, HABITUATION, AND SENSITIZATION CHAPTER 2 What is an elicited behavior? Elicited behavior : any kind of behavior that is demonstrated in response to stimuli (innate or learned) Reflex : a simple elicited behavior Example : Moro reflex Elicited behavior: Reflex Eliciting stimulus Response
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5/4/2011 2 Reflex arc Modal Action Patterns MAPs are response sequences that are typical to a species Examples: Mammals Herring-gull Note: 1. MAPs are highly dependent on circumstances (e.g., physiological state) 2. There are individual differences (within the same species) Modal Action Patterns: The nature of eliciting stimuli MAPs are complex both in eliciting stimuli and elicited behavior Examples: • What makes the gull chick peck the parent bill? (Tinbergen & Perdeck) - releasing stimulus supernormal stimulus – an exaggerated releasing stimulus
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5/4/2011 3 Modal Action Patterns: Sequences of behavior Early components Appetitive behavior : • More individual variability • Aimed at making contact with target • Shaped by learning End components Consummatory behavior : • More stereotypic • Species - specific • Finish sequence (chew, swallow, copulate) Exposure to repeated stimulation An elicited response will not occur the same way every time Elicited behavior is plastic Exposure to repeated stimulation Salivation and hedonic ratings of taste in people (Epstein et al., 1992) Salivation was measured in response to the taste of lemon or lime (10 trials) As the taste stimulus was repeated it became less effective for salivation and hedonic responses On trial 11, the taste was changed Led to a recovery in salivation and hedonic rating
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5/4/2011 4 Exposure to repeated stimulation Salivation and hedonic ratings of taste in people (Epstein et al., 1992) Results tell us that elicited behavior is not invariant across repetitions of the eliciting stimulus Habituation effect – decline in responding that occurs with repeated presentation Habituation is stimulus specific Exposure to repeated stimulation Visual attention in human infants (Bashinski et al., 1985) Visual cues elicit a looking response Two groups tested with different visual stimuli Repeated presentation of the 4 x 4 matrix, led to a decrease in visual attention 12 x 12 matrix led to an initial sensitization effect, and later attention habituated Exposure to repeated stimulation Visual attention in human infants (Bashinski et al., 1985) Trials Fixation time (sec)
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5/4/2011 5 Exposure to repeated stimulation The startle response An organism’s defensive reaction Can be measured by placing the subject on a surface that measures sudden movements Leaton’s expt.: presented rats with a loud noise Animals got used to chamber without the tone Phase 1: received one tone once a day for 11 days Phase 2: tone presented every 3s Phase 3: one tone for 3 days Exposure to repeated stimulation
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2011 for the course PSYC 351 taught by Professor Panagopoulos during the Summer '11 term at Concordia Canada.

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Psyc_351_Section_40_-_Summer_2011_-_Class_2_-_Elicited_Behavior

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