QL-RlFobI0Y - 5/9/2011 Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian):...

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5/9/2011 1 Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian): Foundations Chapter 3 Principles of Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning • The simplest mechanism used to learn about the relations between stimuli - predict an event according to stimulus • The miss and the hit: Twitmyer and Pavlov • Pavlov : Nobel Prize (1904) winner for his work on gastric secretion in dogs Psychic secretion • Vul’fson and Snarskii’s demonstrations: increased salivation with food, sour water, and sand Object learning (associative learning) Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning - The Paradigm Unconditional Stimulus (US) - a stimulus that reliably elicits the characteristic response (no learning involved). Examples: footshock, food Unconditional Response (UR) - the behavior that is elicited by the US. Examples: startle, salivation Conditional Stimulus (CS) - a previously neutral stimulus (I.e., does not normally elicit any response similar to the UR) that following repeated pairings with the US, will elicit the response. Examples: light-cue, tone Conditional Response (CR) - The response elicited by the CS, without presentation of the US. Should be similar to the UR, but is not identical
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5/9/2011 2 Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning - The Paradigm CS US UR CS CR What is learned in conditioning? • Subject learns an association between two of the events in the experiment • Which two events? • S-R learning? CS with the UR? • S-S learning (Pavlov) – stimulus substitution theory – An association betweens CS and US Classical Conditioning - Experimental situations Fear Conditioning Watson & Rayner (1920) - Little Albert Some criticism: 1. No control 2. Punishment procedure?
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5/9/2011 3 Classical Conditioning - Experimental situations Fear Conditioning Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): - an indirect measure of immobility Phase 1: Baseline training Phase 2: Conditioning + Test Suppression Ratio = CS responding/(CS responding + pre-CS responding) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 9 5 Classical Conditioning - Experimental situations Eyeblink Conditioning • An early component of startle response Ivkovich et al 1999: Classical Conditioning - Experimental situations Sign tracking Conditioning A reflection of classical conditioning more complex than simple reflex Animals have the tendency to approach appetitive stimuli Birds were given food Key light was illuminated before food Pigeons started to peck the key (behavior not required for food) Not all CSs will result in sign tracking: the modality of the stimulus is important
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5/9/2011 4 Classical Conditioning - Experimental situations Taste aversion learning Very rapid learning (1 trial learning) Learning occurs even if the subject gets sick hours after CS presentation A powerful conditioning that survives a long time Smith and Roll (1967): Long-delay taste aversion Things that affect the strength of conditioning Time: – Animals are sensitive to the closeness with which CS
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QL-RlFobI0Y - 5/9/2011 Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian):...

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