2005_campbl03 - Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the...

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Chapter 3: Water and the Fitness of the Environment
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H 2 O & Polar Covalence
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H 2 O Bent Geometry Methane: Replace C with O and 2xH with 2 x Electron Pairs and you have Water ! O H H H H H H C
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H 2 O & Hydrogen Bonds Maximum of four H bonds
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H 2 O Properties from H Bonds Water molecules adhere to other molecules (adhesion) Liquid water effects hydrophobic exclusion Liquid water has high specific heat Liquid water has high heat of vaporization Water molecules adhere to each other (cohesion) Water is a liquid rather than gas at room temperature Ice floats Liquid water Is a powerful polar solvent
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Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Hydrophilic = Water Loving These are things that like to dissolve in or be wet by water Typically these things have polar bonds or full charges Hydrophobic = Water Hating Things that do not like to dissolve in or be wet by water Typically these things lack polar bonds or full charges For example, hydrocarbons are hydrophobic, e.g., oils
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Adhesion—Hydration Shells Shown are water molecules adhering to various ions (adhesion), forming hydration shells around them
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Adhesion—Capillary Action Shown are water molecules adhering to to the walls of the tube (adhesion)
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Cohesion “Cohesion” refers to the high potential for water molecules to hydrogen bond to each other
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Hydrophobic Exclusion
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