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2005_campbl05c - Chapter 5c The Structure and Function of...

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Chapter 5c: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules (Proteins)
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Polymers, Monomers, and Lipids polymer category of biomolecules monomer polysaccharide carbohydrates monosaccharides polypeptides proteins amino acids polynucleic acids RNA & DNA nucleotides
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Protein Overview Major constituent of most cells (>50% dry weight) Highly sophisticated molecules (or multi- molecular complexes) Extremely large number of unique proteins exist They are polymers folded into specific conformations (shapes) Conformation and functional-group chemistry controls function Made up of 20 different types of amino-acid monomers Proteins define what an organism is, what it looks like, how it behaves, etc. (responsible for most phenotype) You are your proteins!
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Protein Function
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Globular versus Fibrous Fibrous protein (e.g., collagen) Globular protein (e.g., hemoglobin) Just know general shapes
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Enzymatic Catalysis Globular protein
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Monomer (amino acid) Structure “R” group
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Amino Acid Structure The chemistry of R groups distinguishes amino acids and their properties
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Amino Acid Ionization
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Amino Acid Types Name R-Group Properties Glycine G Gly Hydrophobic Alanine A Ala Hydrophobic Valine V Val
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