2005_campbl08

2005_campbl08 - Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism...

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Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism
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Important Point:
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Metabolism (Overview) Metabolism = Catabolism + Anabolism Catabolic reactions are energy yielding They are involved in the breakdown of more-complex molecules into simpler ones Anabolic reactions are energy requiring They are involved in the building up of simpler molecules into more-complex ones We can consider these bioenergetics in terms of the physical laws of thermodynamics
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1 st nd Laws of Thermodynamics “Energy can be transferred or transformed but neither created nor destroyed.” “Every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe.” Note especially the waste heat
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Organisms are Energy Transducers Organisms take in energy & transduce it to new forms (1st law) As energy transducers, organisms are less than 100% efficient (2nd law) Organisms employ this energy to: Grow Protect Themselves Repair Themselves Compete with other Organisms Make new Organisms (I.e., babies) In the process, organisms generate waste Organisms create local regions of order at the expense of the total energy found in the Universe!!! We are Energy Parasites!
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Water “Fall” Analogy Get it?
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Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed Therefore, energy “generated” in any system is energy that has been transformed from one state to another (e.g., chemically stored energy transformed to heat) Second Law of Thermodynamics: Efficiencies of energy transformation never equal 100% Therefore, all processes lose energy , typically as heat, and are not reversible unless the system is open & the lost energy is resupplied from the environment Conversion to heat is the ultimate fate of chemical energy
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Movements Toward Equilibrium Downhill Increase stability Greater entropy G < 0
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Entropy!
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What is the name of this molecule?
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Movement Toward Equilibrium Potential energy Work Spontaneous Equilibrium Forward reaction
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2005_campbl08 - Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism...

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