2005_campbl17

2005_campbl17 - Important Point Flow of Information DNA DNA...

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1 Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein Important Point: Flow of Information ± DNA Æ DNA = Replication ± DNA Æ RNA = Transcription ± RNA Æ Protein = Translation ± RNA Æ DNA = Reverse Transcription ± Protein Æ RNA or DNA: DOES NOT HAPPEN! ± Nucleic acid sequence is most readily translated into protein sequence ± But protein sequence cannot be translated into nucleic acid sequence ± In other words, information flows from Nucleic Acid Sequence to Protein Sequence ± Information flows from Genotype to Phenotype ± Mutation and Natural Selection supplies the means by which protein sequence can influence nucleic- acid sequence “The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of certain proteins. Proteins are the links between genotype and phenotype.” Information Flow
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2 Roles of Central Players ± A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides ± mRNA is the molecule that presents codons to ribosomes ± DNA serves as a codon-storage molecule ± DNA serves as a template for RNA synthesis ± Ribosomes translate codons, in sequence, into chains of amino-acids (polypeptides) ± These amino-acid (and RNA) sequences are precisely controlled ± Precision is both costly and requires complex machinery to achieve ± Once translated, proteins also are often post- translationally modified ± Proteins consist of one or more polypeptide Triplet Code Genetic Code 61 sense codons for 20 amino acids Note the degeneracy
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Swenson during the Spring '08 term at Ohio State.

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2005_campbl17 - Important Point Flow of Information DNA DNA...

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