2005_campbl17

2005_campbl17 - Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein Important...

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Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein
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Important Point:
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Flow of Information DNA DNA = Replication DNA RNA = Transcription RNA Protein = Translation RNA DNA = Reverse Transcription Protein RNA or DNA: DOES NOT HAPPEN! Nucleic acid sequence is most readily translated into protein sequence But protein sequence cannot be translated into nucleic acid sequence In other words, information flows from Nucleic Acid Sequence to Protein Sequence Information flows from Genotype to Phenotype Mutation and Natural Selection supplies the means by which protein sequence can influence nucleic- acid sequence
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Flow of Information “The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of certain proteins. Proteins are the links between genotype and phenotype.”
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Information Flow
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Information Flow
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Roles of Central Players A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides mRNA is the molecule that presents codons to ribosomes DNA serves as a codon-storage molecule DNA serves as a template for RNA synthesis Ribosomes translate codons, in sequence, into chains of amino-acids (polypeptides) These amino-acid (and RNA) sequences are precisely controlled Precision is both costly and requires complex machinery to achieve Once translated, proteins also are often post- translationally modified Proteins consist of one or more polypeptide
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Triplet Code
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Genetic Code 61 sense codons for 20 amino acids Note the degeneracy of the triplet code But also note the lack of ambiguity
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2005_campbl17 - Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein Important...

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