2005_campbl19 - Important Point: Chapter 19: Eukaryote...

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1 Chapter 19: Eukaryote Genomes Organization, Regulation, and Evolution (through section 19.2 only) Important Point: Metazoan Phenotypic Complexity Different cell types express different genes Phenotypic “Plasticity” ± To survive, organisms must be able to adapt to changes in their environments ± These adaptations can occur at many different levels: Organisms can change their behaviors (ch. 51) Organisms can modify the expression of their proteins post-translationally Organisms can change what genes are expressed Organisms can display norms of reaction during development and/or can acclimatize (ch. 14, 21, 44) Culture (learned behavior) can be modified (ch. 34) Populations can genetically evolve ± These are listed in reverse-order of the speed with which they allow the organism (or species) to react Control of Gene Expression Many levels of control of gene expression In general, organisms are able to modify their phenotype in response to external cues by varying what genes they express “Each stage depicted… is a potential control point at which gene expression can be turned on or off, accelerated or slowed down.” p. 362, Campbell & Reece (2005) Signal Transduction Pathways The regulatory activity of some DNA-binding proteins is sensitive to certain hormones and other chemical signals
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2 Control of Gene Expression DNA structure impacts gene expression Chromatin Packing Less Transcription Less Methylation Metaphase chromosomes In general, the less condensed the DNA, the more potentially available it is to RNA polymerase The more available DNA is to RNA polymerase,
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2005_campbl19 - Important Point: Chapter 19: Eukaryote...

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