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2005_campbl27 - Chapter 27 Prokaryotes Cutting...

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Chapter 27: Prokaryotes
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Cutting Board (Eubacteria)
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What are Prokaryotes?
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Morphological Diversity See text for a better look at these, but no need to memorize these or associated information
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Common Bacterial Shapes
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Spirochete
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Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are oxygen-liberating photosynthetic bacteria
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A Prokaryotic Cell
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Bacterial Cell Walls Thicker peptydoglycan layer but no outer membrane Thinner peptydoglycan layer and outer membrane Peptidoglycan is material making up bacterial cell wall
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Bacterial Cell Walls “One of the most important features of nearly all prokaryotic cells is their cell wall which maintains cell shape, provides physical protection, and prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment.” p. 534, Campbell & Reece (2005) “In a hypertonic environment, most prokaryotes lose water and shrink away form their cell walls (plasmolyze), like other walled cells. Severe water loss inhibits the reproduction of prokaryotes, which explains why salt can be used to preserve certain foods, such as pork and fish.” pp. 534-5, Campbell & Reece (2005)
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Gram Stain Purple are Gram positive Pink are Gram negative
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Bacterial Capsule Capsules provide desiccation resistance, attachment to surfaces, and resistance to phagocytosis
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Bacterial Fimbriae Fibriae are involve in bacterial attachment to surfaces and resistance to phagocytosis
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Conjugation Sex pili effect the transfer of conjugative plasmids
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Bacterial Flagella Flagella effect motility Movement can be down or up concentration gradients, e.g., toward food
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Flagella
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