campbl14 - Lab Exam Genotype & Phenotype Genetics...

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Lab Exam
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Genotype & Phenotype
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Genetics Problem-Solving Secrets! Known Genotype can be used to infer unknown Phenotype (but not always, due to complications, e.g., penetrance) Known Phenotype can be used to infer unknown Genotype (but not always due to lack of 1:1 correspondence: more than one genotype can give rise to a given phenotype) Genotype (diploid) gives rise to Gametes (haploid) via Meiosis Gametes (haploid) give rise to “ Progeny ” (diploid) via Fertilization Fertilization (syngamy) always results in Diploidy (I.e., >ploidy than haploid) Meiosis always results in Haploidy (I.e., anaphase I reduction division from diploidy to haploidy)
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Characters & Traits
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Mendel’s Protocol Controlled breeding, with specific characters scored for specific traits (e.g., character = flower color, trait = purple vs. white)
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True Breeding True breeding results when both parents are homozygous for the same trait, e.g., a purple purple x purple purple cross can result only in purple purple purple-flowered progeny; similarly ww x ww only ww progeny
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Dominant Phenotype Recessive Phenotype
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Dominant Homozygote Recessive Homozygote (note color) Heterozygote (note color) Recessive Homozygote (note color) genotype? genotype? genotype?
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Segregation of Alleles Dominant Homozygote Recessive Homozygote (note color) Heterozygote (note color) Recessive Homozygote Dominant Homozygote Heterozygotes Segregation occurs here
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Meiosis and Segregation
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Generations
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And Don’t Forget… Phenotype Genotype (diploid) Genotype (haploid/ gametes) Meiosis Fertilization Phenotype Genotype (diploid) Genotype (haploid/ gametes) Fertilization Punnett Square Meiosis
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1:2:1 Genotypic Ratio
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3:1 Phenotypic Ratio dominant recessive
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Monohybrid Cross = monohybrid
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Monohybrid Cross = monohybrid
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Test Cross What is the genotype of the purple- flowered plant, PP or Pp ? To find out we can cross the plant
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campbl14 - Lab Exam Genotype & Phenotype Genetics...

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