black12 - Disinfection Disinfection is the elimination of...

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Unformatted text preview: Disinfection Disinfection is the elimination of pathogens, except spores, from inanimate objects Disinfectants are chemical solutions used to clean inanimate objects (physical processes, e.g., UV radiation, may also be employed to effect disinfection) Germicides are chemicals that can be applied to both animate (living) and inanimate objects for the purpose of eliminating pathogens Antiseptics are formulated for application to living tissue The Ideal Disinfectant Resistant to inactviation Broadly active (killing pathogens) Not poisonous (or otherwise harmful) Penetrating (to pathogens) Not damaging to non-living materials Stable Easy to work with Otherwise not unpleasant Disinfectant Performance Is dependent on Disinfectant concentrations Is dependent on length (time) of administration Is dependent on temperature during administration (usual chemical reaction 2x increase in rate with each 10C increase in temperature) Microbe type (e.g., mycobacteria, spores, and certain viruses can be very resistant to disinfectionin general vegetative cells in log phase are easiest to kill) Substrate effects (e.g., high organic content interferes with disinfectionstainless steel bench easier to disinfect than turd) It is easier (and faster) to kill fewer microbes than many microbes Cleansing Cleansing is the removal of soil or organic material from instruments and equipment & may be done, clinically, in four steps: Rinsing the object under cold water Applying detergent and scrubbing object Rinsing the object under warm water Drying the object prior to sterilization or disinfection Sterilization Sterilization is the total elimination of all microorganisms including spores Typically the last things to die are the highly heat- and chemical-resistant bacterial endospores Instruments used for invasive procedures must be sterilized prior to use Moist heat or steam, radiation, chemicals (e.g., glutaraldehyde), and ethylene oxide (a gas) are employed for sterilization Sterilization by autoclaving, which uses moist heat, is used in most hospital and microbiology laboratory settings Other Terms Sanitization: Lowering of microbial counts to prevent transmission in public setting (e.g., restaurants & public rest rooms) Degerming: Mechanical removal of microbes, e.g., from hands with washing Sepsis: Bacterial contamination Antisepsis: Reduction of or Inhibition of microbes found on living tissue Germincides , Fungicides , Virucides Physical versus Chemical disinfectants Static (stasis) versus Cidal (e.g., bacteriostatic versus bacteriocidal) Exponential Death Time....
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course MCB 205 taught by Professor Abedon during the Spring '11 term at Ohio State.

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black12 - Disinfection Disinfection is the elimination of...

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