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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 1: Humans and the Microbial World NosocomialInfections ¡ A Nosocomial Infection is a hospital- or clinic- acquired Infectious Disease . ¡ Nobody goes into medicine in order to prevent Nosocomial Infections . ¡ Nevertheless, to practice medicine you must be able to prevent Nosocomial Infections . ¡ To prevent Nosomial Infections you need to have some understanding of microbiology. ¡ Oh yes, and Infectious Disease , in general, is kind of important to medicine, too. ¡ At the very least, you should be striving to Do No Harm ! ¡ And avoiding harming by infection requires some reasonable knowledge of microbiology. Microbiology, b. 1674 Microscope of Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Microbiology, b. 1674 Microscope of Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Note that images will dissolve in if you are responsible for them and/or I’ll circle or “square” in blue the parts of these images you are particularly responsible for). Note that “ blue ” text you are very responsible for, “black” less so, and “ red ” only in the form of bonus questions. What is Microbiology? ¡ Microbiology is the Science that studies Microorganisms. ¡ Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. ¡ Microorganisms cannot be distinguished Phylogenetically from “Macroorganisms” ¡ For example, many fungi are microorganisms, as well as all bacteria, all viruses, and most protists. ¡ Microbiology is more a collection of techniques: • Aseptic technique • Pure culture technique • Microscopic observation of whole organisms ¡ A microbiologist usually first isolates a specific microorganism from a population and then cultures it (i.e., in pure culture). Microbiology b. >3 billion BC ¡ “It is generally believed that microorganisms have existed on earth for several billion years, and over time, plants and animals have evolved from microorganisms.” ¡ Above is a fossil cyanobacterium that is 950 million years old. ¡ “Microorganisms are… very diverse in all their aspects: appearance, metabolism, physiology, and genetics. They are far more diverse [in these terms] than plants and animals.” 2 Origin of Microbes: Redi’sExp. Origin of Microbes: Spontaneous Generation Myths 9 Snakes from horse hairs in stagnant water 9 Mice from grain and cheese wrapped in a sweater 9 Maggots from rotting meat 9 Fleas from hair 9 Flies from fresh and rotting fruit 9 Mosquitoes from stagnant pondwater 9 Eels from slimy mud at the bottom of the ocean 9 Locusts from green leaves 9 Raccoons from hollow tree trunks 9 Termites are generated from rotting wood Pastuer (1861) Refuted Spont. Gen....
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course MCB 205 taught by Professor Abedon during the Spring '11 term at Ohio State.
- Spring '11