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nester21 - Chapter 21 Antimicrobial Medications Important...

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Chapter 21: Antimicrobial Medications
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Important Point:
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Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutics “The prognosis for people with common diseases such as bacterial pneumonia and severe staphylococcal infection was grim before the discovery and widespread availability of penicillin in the 1940s.” “Physicians were able to identify the cause of the disease, but they were generally unable to recommend treatments other than bed rest.” Early history of Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutic Agents: 1910: Salvarsan (an arsenic compound) by Paul Ehlrich 1928: Penicillin (a mold product--first antibiotic discovered) by Alexander Fleming 1932: Sulfanilamide (sulfa drug) by Gerhard Domagk 1941: Purification of Penicillin by Ernst Chain and Howard Florey post-WWII: Widespread availability Penicillin G
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Antibiotic Discovery It is easy to identify antibiotic-producing microorganism, the hard part is finding antibiotics that are sufficiently Selectively Toxic. Post-microbe modified antibiotics are called Semisynthetic antibiotics. Selective Toxicity means that the agent is more toxic against bacteria than against, e.g., humans.
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Antimicrobal Chemotherapy Terms
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Distinguishing Antibiotics Antibiotics (as well as synthetic antimicrobials) differ in terms of… The organism they are or were isolated from. Their chemical structure. Their (chemo)Therapeutic index. Bacteriostasis versus bacteriostatic. Their spectrum of activity. Their pharmacokinetics (tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion) . Their site of action in bacterial cells. Interaction with other chemotherapeutics. Potential for evolution to resistance. Mechanism of toxicity to the host. Cost.
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Distinguishing Antibiotics Antibiotics (as well as synthetic antimicrobials) differ in terms of… The organism they are or were isolated from. Their chemical structure. Their (chemo)Therapeutic index. Bacteriostasis versus bacteriostatic. Their spectrum of activity. Their pharmacokinetics (tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion) . Their site of action in bacterial cells. Interaction with other chemotherapeutics. Potential for evolution to resistance. Mechanism of toxicity to the host. Cost.
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Antibiotics Sources
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Distinguishing Antibiotics Antibiotics (as well as synthetic antimicrobials) differ in terms of… The organism they are or were isolated from. Their chemical structure. Their (chemo)Therapeutic index. Bacteriostasis versus bacteriostatic. Their spectrum of activity. Their pharmacokinetics (tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion) . Their site of action in bacterial cells. Interaction with other chemotherapeutics. Potential for evolution to resistance.
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