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New Visions of Christendom: Luther and CalvinHistory 101April 5, 2010
New Visions of Christendom•What Were Some Complaints about Late-Medieval Catholicism?•Martin Luther, 1483-1546 •The Reformation in Germany•“Free Christians”•John Calvin and Calvinism
What Were Some Complaints?•Abuses and corruption–the failure of conciliarism•Constance (1414-1418) and Basel (1431-1449)–personal immorality•Pope Alexander VI, r. 1492-1503–Rodrigo Borgia–benefices and nepotism–indulgences and funds demanded by the papacy•Aspects of Catholic theology –salvation through works –clericalism –transubstantiation–Biblical translation and interpretation
The Worst Pope Ever?•This detail from Pinturicchio’s Resurrection with Pope Alexander VI Borgia(1492-1495) shows the former Rodrigo Borgia in an uncharacteristically pious pose. By this point, he had already fathered four illegitimate children.
Martin Luther, 1483-1546•Augustinian monk at Erfurt, 1505•The “tower experience,” 1513–