Lectures Part 7

Lectures Part 7 - Stratigraphy d50 = 0.5-2 mm 5-20% gravel...

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Stratigraphy d 50 = 0.5-2 mm 5-20% gravel ρ b ~1.1 gm/cm 3 0.77 meters K sat ~ 10 2 -10 3 mm/hr porosity = ~0.55 saprolite basal ages 5-7 Ka fractured rock core stones
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Side cast Colluvium Saprolite Oxidized-fract. rock Fractured rock Fresh Rock Fractures Drill holes m m
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We drove the system to ~steady Q, and ψ was ~0. Rainfall Discharge 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 mm/hr .5 1 23 25 27 29 Exp. 2
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Time (days) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 1 01 52 02 53 0 Discharge (mm/hr) Irrigation Rate (mm/hr)
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Runoff • The quantity of rain or snowmelt water that leaves an area as surface flow. • The precipitation may or may not interact with groundwater.
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Runoff Processes A runoff process is a chain of events that route water from the hillslope to the channel.
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Runoff Processes result from the interactions between: • Infiltration rate (i) of the soil • Rainfall, snow melt rate (P) • Soil and bedrock water flow rate (K) • Near-surface groundwater flow
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soil bedrock unsat. zone saturated zone w at er t ab l e river channel A Typical Hillside K s K r
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soil bedrock unsat. zone saturated zone w at er t ab l e river channel rainfall Horton Overland Flow P>i
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soil bedrock unsat. zone saturated zone w at er t ab l e river channel rainfall seepage face perched water table (lasts as long as it rains) Shallow Subsurface Storm Flow P<i K s >>K r
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soil bedrock unsat. zone saturated zone w at er t ab l e river channel rainfall Groundwater Flow P<i K s K r
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soil unconsolidated material unsat. zone saturated zone w at er t ab l e river channel rainfall direct rain on surface saturation return flow water table rises, intersects ground surface Saturation Overland Flow P<i K s K u
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Four Runoff Processes • Horton Overland Flow – occurs when the rainfall rate is greater that the soil infiltration rate. • Shallow Subsurface Storm Flow occurs when the P<i, water reaches a less permeable bedrock. Subsurface flow occurs along rock to a seepage face.
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Four Runoff Processes • Saturation Overland Flow –occurs when the water table rises and intersects the ground surface. • Groundwater flow – occurs when water permeates soil and rock and takes a long slow route to the river channel.
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SOF gives rise to the variable source area concept As a storm progresses more of the watershed is contributing SOF
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Q (vol./time) Time (hours) rising limb falling limb base flow, maintained by gw discharge t peak Q peak How does runoff process affect the hydrograph?
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Lectures Part 7 - Stratigraphy d50 = 0.5-2 mm 5-20% gravel...

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