{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

ch02 - Chapter 2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Chapter...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Chapter Synopsis Every structure of the body is made of chemicals and every function is related to chemical interactions. Therefore this chapter provides students with the essential chemical background needed to understand the anatomy and physiology of the body. Among the topics considered are matter and energy, chemical elements, atomic structure, molecule formation, isotopes (radioactive and stable forms), the role of electrons in chemical reactions, chemical bonds (including ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds), forms of energy and chemical reactions, energy transfer in chemical reactions, and the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions (including synthesis, decomposition, exchange, and reversible reactions). The importance of chemical compounds in life processes is discussed, and the unique roles that inorganic and organic compounds play in living systems are pointed out. The structure and significance of the inorganic substances (water, acids, bases, and salts) are emphasized. Properties of carbon-based molecules are explained before introducing the major organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, and ribonucleic acid, or RNA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The concept of pH and the role of buffer systems and enzymes in maintaining homeostasis are also explored. Clinical applications include lactose intolerance and galactosemia.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter Outline and Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Consider how atoms bond together in the body to form molecules. 2. Discover how atoms and molecules release or store energy in processes known as chemical reactions. 3. Discover how water is involved in nearly every chemical reaction. 4. Define matter and mass. HOW MATTER IS ORGANIZED Chemical Elements 4. Identify the principal chemical elements of the human body by their names and chemical symbols. Structure of Atoms 5. Describe each component of an atom in terms of its relative position, charge, and mass. Atomic Number and Mass Number 6. Explain how the atomic number of an atom determines its chemistry because of the amount of attraction by the set number of nuclear positive charges for negative electrons of other atoms.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern