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Chapter 2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Chapter Synopsis Every structure of the body is made of chemicals and every function is related to chemical interactions. Therefore this chapter provides students with the essential chemical background needed to understand the anatomy and physiology of the body. Among the topics considered are matter and energy, chemical elements, atomic structure, molecule formation, isotopes (radioactive and stable forms), the role of electrons in chemical reactions, chemical bonds (including ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds), forms of energy and chemical reactions, energy transfer in chemical reactions, and the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions (including synthesis, decomposition, exchange, and reversible reactions). The importance of chemical compounds in life processes is discussed, and the unique roles that inorganic and organic compounds play in living systems are pointed out. The structure and significance of the inorganic substances (water, acids, bases, and salts) are emphasized. Properties of carbon-based molecules are explained before introducing the major organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, and ribonucleic acid, or RNA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The concept of pH and the role of buffer systems and enzymes in maintaining homeostasis are also explored. Clinical applications include lactose intolerance and galactosemia.
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Chapter Outline and Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Consider how atoms bond together in the body to form molecules. 2. Discover how atoms and molecules release or store energy in processes known as chemical reactions. 3. Discover how water is involved in nearly every chemical reaction. 4. Define matter and mass. HOW MATTER IS ORGANIZED Chemical Elements 4. Identify the principal chemical elements of the human body by their names and chemical symbols. Structure of Atoms 5. Describe each component of an atom in terms of its relative position, charge, and mass. Atomic Number and Mass Number 6. Explain how the atomic number of an atom determines its chemistry because of the amount of attraction by the set number of nuclear positive charges for negative electrons of other atoms. 7.
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