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Chapter 3 THE CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Chapter Synopsis Students are presented with the structural and functional aspects of cells through analysis of a generalized animal cell. The cell is divided into three principal parts for ease of study: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm consisting of the cytosol and organelles, and the nucleus. The anatomy and physiology of the plasma membrane is covered in extensive detail. Consideration is given to important processes of movement of materials across the plasma membrane, including diffusion, osmosis, diffusion through the lipid bilayer, diffusion through membrane channels, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and vescicular transport (endocytosis including receptor mediated endocytosis, phagocytosis and pinocytosis, and exocytosis). The form and function of the cytosol, organelles, and nucleus are similarly covered. Attention is also given to the events involved in protein synthesis following the processes of transcription of DNA to mRNA and translation of mRNA to the creation of a protein. The result, mechanisms, and importance of somatic - mitotic cell division and reprocutive cell division are examined thoroughly. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of aging on cells and cellular diversity. Cancer is discussed as a homeostatic imbalance exemplified by uncontrolled division of cells. The subject of cancer is explored in several areas: growth and spread of malignant tumors, types of cancers, causes, the multistep process of carcinogenesis, and treatment. Clinical applications that are covered include the mechanism by which cholesterol
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pump in heart muscle, the cellular basis of cystic fibrosis, the cellular basis of Tay-Sachs disease, recombinant DNA, abnormalities in genes that help to regulate the cell cycle and the problems they cause, and Progeria and Werner’s Syndrome. Chapter Outline and Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Define a cell 2. Describe the connection between the chemical level of organization and cellular components. 3. Relate the essential importance of the cellular level of organization to all life forms. PARTS OF A CELL 4. Describe the three principal parts of a cell. THE PLASMA MEMBRANE 5. Describe how the “fluid mosaic model” concept appropriately describes the nature and structure of the plasma membrane. The Lipid Bilayer 6. Explain how the chemical nature of the distinct regions of phospholipids automatically produces a lipid bilayer in a water solution, with a range of properties. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course BIO 115 taught by Professor Chen during the Fall '09 term at Moraine Valley Community College.

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