THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
This chapter undertakes a detailed analysis of the structure and physiology of the
organs of respiration.
After the anatomy and histology of the system are
described, physiological aspects are discussed.
These include mechanisms
involved in pulmonary ventilation, compliance, airway resistance, breathing
patterns and modified respiratory movements, pulmonary air volumes and
capacities, exchange of respiratory gases, gas laws, gaseous exchange during
external (pulmonary) and internal (tissue) respiration, the transport of oxygen and
carbon dioxide, and the factors that control respiration.
There is a section on the
system’s developmental anatomy, and the effects of aging on the respiratory
system are described.
The chapter includes Focus on Homeostasis: The
Among the disorders considered are asthma, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, coryza
and influenza, pulmonary edema, cystic fibrosis, asbestos related diseases,
sudden infant death syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clinical
applications found in this chapter include rhinoplasty, nasal polyps,
cancer of the larynx,
tracheostomy and intubation, pneumothorax and
hemothorax, hyperbaric oxygenation, hypoxia, and why smokers have lowered
respiratory efficiency. The chapter concludes with a glossary of medical
terminology associate with the respiratory system.