ch24 - Chapter 24 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter Synopsis In...

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Chapter 24 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter Synopsis In this chapter the organs of the digestive system are divided into two categories, those of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the accessory organs of digestion. The structure and function of the organs are discussed. The digestive process is considered by region. The anatomy, histology, and mechanical and chemical digestive processes of each region are discussed together. There is also emphasis on the nervous and hormonal mechanisms regulating control of secretion in the digestive organs. Developmental anatomy of the digestive system and the effects of aging on the digestive system are discussed. Disorders of the digestive system described include dental caries, periodontal disease, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colorectal cancer, hepatitis, and anorexia nervosa. Clinical applications presented include root canal therapy, peritonitis, mumps, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pylorospasm and pyloric stenosis, jaundice, vomiting, pancreatitis, absorption of alcohol, lactose intolerance, appendicitis, occult blood, and dietary fiber. The chapter concludes with Focus on Homeostasis: the Digestive System. Chapter Outline and Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Define digestion and absorption and identify the system that provides these functions.
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OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 2. Identify the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion and their general functions in digestion and absorption of food molecules for use by body cells. 1. List and define the six primary processes of digestion performed by the gastrointestinal tract. LAYERS OF THE GI TRACT 4. Name the four basic tissue layers of the GI tract that are commonly found from the stomach to the anus. Mucosa 5. Discuss the characteristic structure and duties of the epithelial, lamina propria, and muscularis layers of the mucosa. Submucosa 6. Describe the structural, neural, and secretory features of the submucosal layer. Muscularis 7. Describe the muscle changes, layers, and control through the extent of the GI tract. Serosa 8. Describe the serosa as a part of the peritoneum. NEURAL INNERVATION OF THE GI TRACT
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9. Describe the role of the ENS, ANS, and gastrointestinal reflexes in regulation the GI tract. PERITONEUM 10. Discuss how the components of the peritoneal serosal membrane surround the abdominal organs and form the peritoneal cavity. 11. Describe the mesentery tissue and functions, and then the conspicuous folds that support the abdominal digestive organs. 12. Discuss the causes, symptoms, and seriousness of peritonitis. MOUTH 13. Discuss the structure and function of the parts of the mouth. Structure and Function of the Salivary Glands 14. Describe the location, cellular composition, and secretory output of the major and minor salivary glands.
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