THE URINARY SYSTEM
Chapter 26 describes the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system; its role
in maintaining homeostasis of blood composition, volume, pH, and pressure; and
its importance as an excretory system.
The role of the kidneys in filtering blood
and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes to the bloodstream is
There is a careful description of the three stages of urine formation:
glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.
mechanisms of urine dilution and urine concentration, including the
countercurrent mechanism, are explained, followed by a short discussion of
diuretics and kidney function evaluation.
The structure, histology, and physiology
of ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra are considered.
Students are introduced
to the physical characteristics of urine, its normal chemical composition, and
representative abnormal constituents.
The developmental anatomy of the urinary
system is covered, along with changes in the urinary system with aging.
of the urinary system in maintaining homeostasis is examined.
Disorders of the
urinary system presented include renal calculi, urinary tract infections, glomerular
diseases, renal failure, and polycystic kidney disease.
The chapter concludes
with a glossary of medical terminology related to the urinary system.
applications include nephroptosis, number of nephrons, loss of plasma proteins,
kidney transplant, cystoscopy, glucosuria, diuretics, dialysis, and urinary
incontinence and retention.