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The Respiratory System - The Respiratory System The Cells...

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The Respiratory System The Respiratory System Cells continually use O2 & release CO2 Respiratory system designed for gas exchange Cardiovascular system transports gases in blood Failure of either system rapid cell death from O2 starvation
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Respiratory System Anatomy Nose Pharynx = throat Larynx = voicebox Trachea = windpipe Bronchi = airways Lungs Locations of infections upper respiratory tract is above vocal cords lower respiratory tract is below vocal cords
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Nose -- Internal Structures Large chamber within the skull Roof is made up of ethmoid and floor is hard palate Internal nares (choanae) are openings to pharynx Nasal septum is composed of bone & cartilage Bony swelling or conchae on lateral walls
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Functions of the Nasal Structures Olfactory epithelium for sense of smell Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells lines nasal cavity warms air due to high vascularity mucous moistens air & traps dust cilia move mucous towards pharynx Paranasal sinuses open into nasal cavity found in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal & maxillary lighten skull & resonate voice
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Pharynx Muscular tube (5 inch long) hanging from skull skeletal muscle & mucous membrane Extends from internal nares to cricoid cartilage Functions passageway for food and air resonating chamber for speech production tonsil (lymphatic tissue) in the walls protects entryway into body Distinct regions -- nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
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Nasopharynx From choanae to soft palate openings of auditory (Eustachian) tubes from middle ear cavity adenoids or pharyngeal tonsil in roof Passageway for air only pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet
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Oropharynx From soft palate to epiglottis fauces is opening from mouth into oropharynx palatine tonsils found in side walls, lingual tonsil in tongue Common passageway for food & air stratified squamous epithelium
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Laryngopharynx Extends from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage Common passageway for food & air & ends as esophagus inferiorly stratified squamous epithelium
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Cartilages of the Larynx Thyroid cartilage forms Adam’s apple Epiglottis---leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage during swallowing, larynx moves upward epiglottis bends to cover glottis Cricoid cartilage---ring of cartilage attached to top of trachea Pair of arytenoid cartilages sit upon cricoid many muscles responsible for their movement partially buried in vocal folds (true vocal cords)
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Larynx Cartilage & connective tissue tube Anterior to C4 to C6 Constructed of 3 single & 3 paired cartilages
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Vocal Cords False vocal cords (ventricular folds) found above vocal folds (true vocal cords) True vocal cords attach to arytenoid cartilages
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Movement of Vocal Cords Opening and closing of the vocal folds occurs during breathing and speech
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Speech and Whispering Speech is modified sound made by the larynx.
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