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Chapter 4 Tissues - 4-1Chapter 4Histology The Study of...

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Unformatted text preview: 4-1Chapter 4Histology: The Study of Tissues4-2Histology•Tissue is a Group of similar cells–common embryonic origin–common function•Histology–study of tissues•Pathologist–looks for tissue changes that indicate disease4-3Tissues and Histology•Tissue Level of Organization–Epithelial –Connective–Muscle–Nervous4-4Tissues and Histology•Epithelial Tissue–covers surfaces because cells are in contact –lines hollow organs, cavities and ducts–forms glands when cells sink under the surface•Connective Tissue–material found between cells–supports and binds structures together–stores energy as fat–provides immunity to disease4-5Tissues and Histology•Muscle Tissue–cells shorten in length producing movement•Nerve Tissue–cells that conduct electrical signals –detects changes inside and outside the body–responds with nerve impulses4-6Embryonic Tissue•Germ layers–Endoderm•Inner layer•Forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives–Mesoderm•Middle layer•Forms tissues as muscle, bone, blood vessels–Ectoderm•Outer layer•Forms skin and neuroectoderm4-7Epithelium Characteristics•Consists almost entirely of cells•Covers bodysurfaces and forms glands•Has freeand basal surface•Specialized cell contacts•Avascular•Undergoes mitosis4-8Functions of Epithelia•Protecting underlying structures•Acting as barriers•Permitting the passage of substances•Secretingsubstances•Absorbingsubstances4-9Classification of Epithelium•Classified by arrangement of cells into layers–simple = one cell layer thick–stratified = many cell layers thick–pseudostratified = single layer of cells where all cells don’t reach apical surface•nuclei at found at different levels so it looks multilayered•Classified by shape of surface cells–squamous =flat–cuboidal = cube-shaped–columnar = tall column–transitional = shape varies with tissue stretching4-10Simple Squamous Epithelium•Single layer of flat cells–lines blood vessels (endothelium), body cavities (mesothelium)–very thin --- controls diffusion, osmosis and filtration–nuclei centrally located•Cells in direct contact with each other4-11Examples of Simple Squamous1.Surface view of lining of peritoneal cavity2.Section of intestinal showing serosa1.2.4-12Simple Cuboidal Epithelium•Single layer of cube-shaped cells viewed from the side•Nuclei round and centrally located•Lines tubes of kidney•Absorption or secretion4-13Example of Simple Cuboidal•Sectional view of kidney tubules4-14Nonciliated Simple Columnar•Single layer rectangular cells•Unicellular glands =goblet cells secrete mucus...
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Chapter 4 Tissues - 4-1Chapter 4Histology The Study of...

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