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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 The Heart Circulation Heart pumps...

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Chapter 14 The Heart & Circulation Heart pumps over 1 million gallons per year Over 60,000 miles of blood vessels BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION The circulatory system is a series of blood vessels, or hollow tubes, that begin and end in the heart. The circulatory system delivers blood to all the cells in the body and then returns it to the heart. Structure of the Circulatory System Two Circulations 1. The pulmonary circulation carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and to the left atrium. The pulmonary circulation oxygenates the blood. Structure of the Circulatory System 2. The systemic circulation supplies blood to the rest of the body and then returns the blood to the heart. HEART The heart pumps blood throughout the blood vessels supplies the cells of the body with oxygen and nutrients carries away the waste products of metabolism. Structure of the Heart: What It Is Location and Size 1. The heart is the size of a fist. It is located within the mediastinum, and lies toward the left side of the body. Heart Orientation The Heart’s Chambers and Large Vessels 1. The heart has four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. The atria receive the blood and the ventricles pump the blood. 2. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava. 3. The right ventricle pumps unoxygenated blood to the lungs. 4. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs (pulmonary veins). 5. The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta. Heart Valves Purpose: Keeps blood flowing in a forward direction. 1. Two atrioventricular valves: the tricuspid valve (right heart) (mitral) valve (left heart) 2. The two semilunar valves: pulmonic valve (right heart) aortic valve (left heart). The cusps, or flaps, of the AV valves are held in place by tough fibrous bands called chordae tendineae.
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Heart Valves Heart Valves Heart Sounds Auscultation Stethoscope Sounds of heartbeat are from turbulence in blood flow caused by valve closure first heart sound ( lubb ) is created with the closing of the atrioventricular valves second heart sound ( dupp ) is created with the closing of semilunar valves Heart Sounds Where to listen on chest wall for heart sounds. 2. The heart is supported by a slinglike structure called the pericardium. Fibrous pericardium dense irregular CT protects and anchors the heart, prevents overstretching Serous pericardium thin delicate membrane contains parietal layer-outer layer pericardial cavity with pericardial fluid visceral layer (epicardium) The Heart’s Layers and Coverings The heart is composed of three layers of tissue.
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