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Unformatted text preview: 11. The pressure p at the depth d of the hatch cover is p0 + ρgd, where ρ is the density of
ocean water and p0 is atmospheric pressure. The downward force of the water on the
hatch cover is (p0 + ρgd)A, where A is the area of the cover. If the air in the submarine is
at atmospheric pressure then it exerts an upward force of p0A. The minimum force that
must be applied by the crew to open the cover has magnitude
F = (p0 + ρgd)A – p0A = ρgdA = (1024 kg/m3)(9.8 m/s2)(100 m)(1.2 m)(0.60 m)
= 7.2 × 105 N. ...
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