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Rose BettsNURS 611 Assignment 12.1: Workbook Assignment Chapter 24 Concept 1 Menopause (Workbook #7) Natural menopause is the cessation of ovulation and menses caused by ovarian failure. It is a normal developmental event marking the end of reproduction. Menopause is universally experienced by midlife women at the average age of 50.5 to 51.4 years in North America with variability between 40 and 60 years. A number of factors are thought to influence the age of menopause, including genetics, socioeconomic status, race, parity, oral contraceptive use, and lifestyle, such as smoking or weight. Genetics accounts for about 50% of the variation in age at menopause. Concept 2 Ovulation (Workbook #11) Ovulation is the release of an ovum from a mature follicle and marks the beginning of the luteal/secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. Ovulatory cycles appear to have a minimum length of 24 to 26.5 days. The primary ovarian follicle requires 10 to 12.5 days to develop, and the luteal phase appears relatively fixed at 14 days (±3 days). The corpus luteum, the structure that develops from the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation or ovum release, produces progesterone. Androgens in women are produced within the ovarian follicle, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue. Concept 3 Puberty and adolescence (Workbook #25) Puberty is the onset of sexual maturation and differs from adolescence. Adolescence is the stage of human development between childhood and adulthood and includes social, psychologic, and biologic changes. In girls, puberty begins at about ages 8 to 9 years with thelarche (breast development). In boys, it begins later—at about age 11 years—but occurs earlier with increased weight and body mass index.Genetics, environment, ethnicity, general health, and nutrition can influence the timing of puberty. Concept 4 Gamete (Workbook #27) Through which a 23-chromosome female gamete, the ovum, and a 23-chromosome male gamete, the spermatozoon (sperm cell), unite to form a 46-chromosome zygote that is capable of developing into a new individual. Production of primitive female gametes (ova) occurs solely during fetal life. From puberty to menopause, one female gamete matures per menstrual cycle. Production of the male gametes (sperm) begins at puberty; after that millions are produced daily, usually for life. Concept 5 Menstration (Workbook #29)
Rose BettsMenstruation continues to recur in a recognizable and characteristic pattern during adulthood, with the length of the menstrual cycle varying considerably among women. The commonly accepted cycle average is 28 (27 to 30) days, with rhythmic intervals of 21 to 35 days considered normal. Approximately 2 to 8 years before menopause, cycles begin to lengthen again with variation related to changing hormone levels. During menstruation (menses), the functional layer of the endometrium disintegrates and is discharged through the vagina.