All Review III Notes AU10

All Review III Notes AU10 - 1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration...

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1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled to a total volume of solution % (m/v or w/v) = mass of solute (g) x 100 volume of solution (mL) units are specified Parts-per-million ppm = mass or volume of solute x 10 6 mass or volume of solution
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2 Sample calculation: How many ounces of wine ( 12 % v/v ) are in one standard drink ? 12 mL pure alcohol in 100 mL wine Density of pure alcohol = 0.789 g/mL 1 ounce = 29.57 mL g alcohol mL alcohol mL wine ounces wine 14 g alcohol x 1 mL x 100 mL wine x 1 oz . 1 standard drink 0.789 g 12 mL alcohol 29.57 mL = 5.0 oz of wine / standard drink
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3 Molarity (M) = moles of solute L of solution Drill problem: What volume of 2.0 M CaCl 2 is needed to provide 1.94 g Ca 2+ ? g Ca 2+ mol Ca 2+ mol CaCl 2 volume soln 1.94 g Ca 2+ x 1 mol x 1 mol CaCl 2 x 1 L . 40.1 g 1 mol Ca 2+ 2.0 mol CaCl 2 = 0.024 L or 24 mL
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4 Ch 8.6 Dilution C stock soln x V stock soln = C dilute soln x V dilute soln Practice problem : How much water must be added to 100 mL of 0.300 M NaCl to prepare a 0.0500 M NaCl solution? C s x V s = C d x V d (you must know this equation) 0.300 M x 100 mL = 0.0500 M x V d V d = 600 mL = final volume ( V s + V water ) V water = V d V s = 600 mL 100 mL = 500 mL Q: How many-fold of a dilution has occurred?
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5 Ch 8.7 Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions Table 8.4 Property comparison for solutions, colloidal dispersions, and suspensions. Ch 8.8 Colligative Properties of Solutions reduction of vapor pressure elevation of boiling point depression of freezing point osmotic pressure directly proportional to the total concentration of all the species formed when solutes dissolve
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6 Ch 8.9 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure osmolarity = molarity x i i = number of particles from one formula unit of solute Example: What is the osmolarity of a solution that is 1 M in MgBr 2 and 2 M in glucose ? Osmolarity = 1 M x 3 + 2 M x 1 = 5 osmol MgBr 2 glucose The osmotic pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the number of solute particles present. Solution A 0.30 osmol = 7.6 atm Solution B 0.15 osmol = 3.8 atm Solution C 1.5 osmol = ? Isotonic, Hypotonic , and Hypertonic solutions. Ch 8.10 Dialysis: a semipermeable membrane allows the passage of solvent, dissolved ions, and small molecules, but blocks the passage of larger particles. (separation technique)
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7 Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions Ch 9.1-9.3 covered in Review II (Chapter Medley) Ch 9.4 Collision Theory and Chemical Reactions Activation energy (E a ) is the minimum combined kinetic energy that colliding reactants must possess in order for their collision to result in a chemical reaction. Higher activation energy Slower reaction Lower activation energy Faster reaction Collision Orientation Reaction rates are sometimes very slow because reactant molecules must be oriented in a certain way.
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8 Ch 9.5 Exothermic Chemical Reactions Figure 9.7 Energy diagram for an exothermic reaction.
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