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Ch 8 Student Notes

Ch 8 Student Notes - 1 Chapter 8 Gas Solutions Liquid Solid...

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1 Chapter 8 Solutions Gas Liquid Solid
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2 Ch 8.1 Characteristics of Solutions A solution is a ________________ mixture Two or more substances; each retains its own identity Composition can vary Properties can vary with ____________ Uniform properties throughout One visible phase Can be separated by ___________ means
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3 Solvent __________ quantity same phase as solution Solute __________ quantity material dissolved in solvent Figure 8.1 colored crystals (solute) dissolve in clear liquid (solvent) to produce a solution.
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4 Ch 8.2 Solubility is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent under a given set of conditions. Factors affecting solubility ___________ of solute & solvent Temperature Pressure (in case of gases) Presence of other _________
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5 Most solids become ________ soluble in water with increasing temperature. Table 8.1
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6 The solubility of a gas in water ____________ with increasing temperature. Fish kill as a result of oxygen depletion.
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7 Effect of Pressure on Solubility of Gases Henry’s Law The amount of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the ___________ pressure of the gas above the liquid. William Henry 1775-1836
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8 The larger oxygen partial pressure in an oxygen-enriched mixture translates into increased oxygen uptake.
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9 Decompression Sickness (divers' disease, the bends or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurization. Most commonly a type of scuba diving hazard but may be experienced in caisson working, flying in unpressurised aircraft, and extra-vehicular activity from spacecraft. Scuba divers making a decompression stop Decompression chambers.
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10 A saturated solution contains the _________ amount of solute that can be dissolved under a given set of conditions. Figure 8.3 In a saturated solution, the dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with undissolved solute . Example: dissociation NaCl(s) + H 2 O( l ) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ____________
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11 A supersaturated solution is an unstable solution that temporarily contains more dissolved solute than that present in a saturated solution. It will produce crystals rapidly, often in a dramatic manner, if it is slightly disturbed or if it is “______” with a tiny crystal of solute.
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12 Unsaturated solution contains ________ than the maximum amount of solute Concentrated solution contains a large amount of solute relative to the amount that could dissolve Dilute solution contains a _______ amount of solute relative to the amount that could dissolve
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13 Ch 8.3 Solution Formation Fig. 8.5 An ionic compound dissolves in H 2 O to form _______ ions.
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14 Energy is needed to overcome ____________ forces : Attraction between solute particles (ionic bonds for ionic compounds) Attraction between solvent particles (hydrogen- bonding for water molecules) Energy is released from the solvation of the ions.
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