Ch 9 Student Notes

Ch 9 Student Notes - 1 Energy Changes Reaction Rates...

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1 Energy Changes Reaction Rates Equilibrium
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2 Ch 9.4 Collision Theory and Chemical Reactions For actual damage to occur, they must collide and they must do so with sufficient ___________.
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3 For a chemical reaction to occur, reactant particles must collide with sufficient energy (activation energy). Activation energy (E a ) is the minimum combined kinetic energy that colliding reactants must possess in order for their collision to result in a chemical reaction. Higher activation energy ____________ reaction Lower activation energy ____________ reaction
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4 Collision Orientation Reaction rates are sometimes very slow because reactant molecules must be oriented in a certain way. Figure 9.6 NO 2 (g) + CO(g) ___(g) + ___(g)
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5 Ch 9.5 Exothermic Chemical Reactions When the energy required to break bonds in the reactants is less than the energy released by bond formation in the products, the reaction is Exothermic. H = __________
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6 Figure 9.7 Energy _______ for an exothermic reaction. Sometimes an initial input of energy may be needed but once it has started, an exothermic reaction is self-sustaining.
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7 Ch 9.5 Endothermic Chemical Reactions When there is more energy stored in the product molecules than in reactant molecules, the reaction is Endothermic. H = ________
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8 Figure 9.7 Energy diagram for an endothermic reaction. A continuous input of ______ is needed for endothermic reactions to occur.
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9 Figure 9.8 Natural processes occur at a wide range of reaction rates. Ch 9.6 Factors That Influence Chemical Reaction ______ Physical nature of the reactants Reactant concentrations Reaction temperature Reaction pressure in the case of gases Presence of catalysts
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10 Particle size of solid reactants greatly affects reaction rates. Wood fire. Saw dust explosion. Coal fire. Coal mine explosion. smaller particles = more surface area ________ reaction rates
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11 Reaction rates _________ as the concentrations of reactants increase. Demo: Iodine clock
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12 Reaction Temperature greatly affects reaction _________ . Higher temperature Higher average kinetic energy More frequent collision More forceful collision Reactions are faster Generally, the rate of a chemical reaction doubles for every 10 o C increase in temperature. Milk spoils faster on the counter top than in the refrigerator. Drill question: If milk stays fresh for 8 days in the refrigerator at 4 o C, in how many days will it spoil on the counter top at 24 o C?
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13 Catalysts increase reaction rates without being consumed. A catalyst provides an alternative route for the reaction with a _________ activation energy (E a ). Catalysts DO NOT influence the amount of product formed, they only speed up the process.
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14 Uncatalyzed reaction: X + Y Z Steps of the catalyzed reaction: X + C X C Y + X C XY C XY C C Z C Z C + Z
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15 Solid heterogeneous catalysts such as in automobile catalytic converters are plated on structures designed to ________
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2011 for the course CHM 123 taught by Professor Woodward during the Fall '08 term at Ohio State.

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Ch 9 Student Notes - 1 Energy Changes Reaction Rates...

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