Ch 10 Student Notes

Ch 10 Student Notes - 1 Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts...

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1 Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts
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2 Ch 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory (also in Chapter Medley) Arrhenius Acids produce Arrhenius Bases produce H + in water OH - in water HCl hydrochloric acid KOH HNO 3 nitric acid Ba(OH) 2 HClO 4 perchloric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid
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3 Arrhenius Acids Sour taste Change blue litmus paper to ___ Corrosive Arrhenius Bases Bitter taste Change red litmus paper to ___ Slippery (soapy) to the touch
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4 Ch 10.2 Brønsted–Lowry Acid-Base Theory Brønsted–Lowry acid = proton (H + ion) donor Brønsted–Lowry base = proton (H + ion) acceptor In aqueous solution, a proton is bonded to water through a coordinate covalent bond: _____________ Ion
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5 Base Acid H + acceptor H + donor H 2 O ( l ) + HCl (g) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base Acid H + acceptor H + donor NH 3 (g) + HCl (g) [NH 4 + Cl - ] NH 4 Cl(s) Figure 10.3 White cloud of solid _________ formed from gaseous HCl and NH 3.
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6 Conjugate Acid-Base pairs differ by a single _____ Acid Base Acid Base H + donor H + acceptor H + donor H + acceptor HCl (g) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate Acid ______
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7 Drill Problem. Write the chemical formula for: 1. The conjugate base of H 2 PO 4 - 2. The conjugate acid of H 2 PO 4 - 3. The conjugate base of H 2 O 4. The conjugate acid of H 2 O Take note that H 2 PO 4 - and H 2 O can act as H + donor or H + acceptor. Substances that can either donate or accept a H + are called amphiprotic.
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8 Ch 10.3 Mono-, Di-, and Triprotic Acids Monoprotic acids can transfer 1 H + to H 2 O or base Examples: HCl and HNO 3 Diprotic acids can transfer 2 H + Example: H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HSO 4 - HSO 4 - + H 2 O H 3 O + + SO 4 2- Triprotic acids can transfer ______ Example: H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + H 2 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HPO 4 2 HPO 4 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + PO 4 3 A polyprotic acid supplies _____________
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9 Only acidic H atoms are donated: Acetic acid is ______protic Acidic CH 3 CO 2 H (l) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) acetate ion
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10 Ch 10.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases A strong acid donates all or nearly 100% of its H + to ____ Table 10.1 Learn the name and formulas these commonly encountered strong acids, and then assume that all other acids you encounter are weak, unless you are told otherwise. s of These acids are strong even in ________solution because in water they are all or mostly ionized.
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A weak acid does not ionize completely. Acetic acid is a weak acid; less than ____ of its molecules are ionized: CH 3 CO 2 H (l) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Figure 10.5 Comparison of ionized species for a strong and a weak acid. demo
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Ch 10 Student Notes - 1 Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts...

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