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Midterm1-spring2003

# Midterm1-spring2003 - Name Page 1 of 10 Instructions-Write...

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Name: Page 1 of 10 Instructions: --Write your name on all the pages --Make sure that all 10 pages are attached. --You may not use calculators or other electronic aids. The math needed to solve a problem should be relatively simple. If not please give your answer by showing how you would make the calculation: e.g., showing "(10+10)/4" is as good an answer as "5" (writing down an appropriate equation and clearly defining the variables, as well as indicating their values, if known, will also suffice). --If you get hung up on a problem, skip it; return to it after you’ve answered the “easy” problems. GENERAL ECOLOGY PCB 4044 SPRING 2003 MIDTERM I PAGE POINTS POSSIBLE SCORE 2 12 _____ 3 12 _____ 4 11 _____ 5 12 _____ 6 10 _____ 7 10 _____ 8 9 _____ 9 15 _____ 10 9 _____ _____ _________ TOTAL 100 _____

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Name: Page 2 of 10 1. A species of salamander ( Salamandrous imaginarius ) occurs on mountains only at elevations below 2,000 m. A second species of salamander ( S. secondarius ) rarely co-occurs with S. imaginarius but is frequent at sites >2,000 m elevation. A species of predatory snake ( Serpentes caudatovore ) also is restricted to elevations >2,000 m. a) (6 points) Develop three separate hypotheses that could explain the observed distribution of one of the three species (i.e., focus on either the snake or one of the salamanders). Each hypothesis should emphasize a different process. b) (6 points) Design an experiment to distinguish among the three competing hypotheses. Include all relevant information, including details about the key components of a well designed experiment. Also be sure to mention what you will measure and what you should “see” if the different hypotheses are correct (and what you should see if it is incorrect).
Name: Page 3 of 10 2. (6 points) You’re completing the analyses for one of your lab reports. You do a statistical test and report “ P =0.30”; as a result, you accept the null hypothesis. Your room mate (a history major) reads your report, but is unfamiliar with statistics and doesn’t understand what a P -value is. What would you tell him? 3. (6 points ) For each of the following pairs of items, please select (i.e., circle) the study that would have the greatest statistical power (i.e., the smallest Type II error rate).

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Midterm1-spring2003 - Name Page 1 of 10 Instructions-Write...

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