Competition I - Competition I Definitions(I Competition Use...

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6/4/11 Competition I
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6/4/11 Definitions (I) Competition: ‘Use or defense of a resource by one individual that reduces its availability to another individual of the same ( intraspecific ) or other species ( interspecific)’ - - INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION
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6/4/11 Definitions (II) Resource : (e.g. nutrients, prey, refuges) any substance or factor that is consumed or used by an organism and that supports increased population growth as its availability in the environment increases. Physical factors (e.g. temperature, salinity) can have large impacts on populations but are not consumed so
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6/4/11 6 Consumer organisms compete for resources (food), but also for space… Barnacles settle from plankton on to rock surfaces (where space is available) They can actively pry other individuals off
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6/4/11 Interactions in the demand for different Pearce and Grubb (1982) showed experimentally how 2 resources interact to determine growth of a herbaceous plant.
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6/4/11 Who competes? Some research suggests that (in general) more closely related species compete more strongly with each other than distantly related species. In many cases
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6/4/11 Who perhaps doesn’t (so much)? When densities of competitors are very low, competition will be low (naturally!). Apex predators can tap into resources that others can’t (big animals!)
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6/4/11 Who perhaps doesn’t (so much)? degree of competition depends on degree of niche overlap, interspecific competition is predicted to lead to directional selection for reduced niche overlap. 6 Resource Partitioning
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6/4/11 Types of Competition (I) Interference competition – Involves direct interactions between individuals . It includes aggressive interactions in which one individual actively attempts to exclude another.
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6/4/11 Types of competition (II) Interference: Allelopathy (chemical competition). Australian ironwood suppresses germination and growth of native species
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6/4/11 Types of Competition (III) Exploitation competition – indirect competition in which one species uses more of the limited resource or uses the resource more efficiently than another species.
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