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Island biogeography lecture

Island biogeography lecture - Island Biogeography About...

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Island Biogeography
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About 100,000 islands in the world are occupied by humans (total number seems open to debate).
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Indonesia alone is estimated to have around 18,000 islands!
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Some islands are better than others
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Oceanic islands Oceanic islands are the most remote. They are by definition islands in the ocean basins, away from the margins of continents. b Most have been/are created through volcanic activity (but this is no geology lecture so I’ll stop here) b By virtue of their isolation and origin,
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Cocos Island, Costa Rica: Remote (isolated) island in E. Pacific Ocean
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Aerial view of Cocos Island (rainforest covered)
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Community patterns of isolated oceanic islands like Cocos Depauperate fauna, flora b Disharmonious fauna, flora Defined as non-representative types of organisms, including absence of typical mainland types Cocos Island, for example, has no native land mammals, no amphibians, no bees, only one butterfly species, two lizards… Proportionately many endemic species Closest relatives found nearby--Galapagos, mainland Central & South America
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Only 4 Resident landbird species. Cocos Finch shown here
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Dispersal is important aspect of which species (and how many) occupy oceanic islands Colonization process, movement to newly created (or scoured) volcanic islands has been well documented Krakatoa in Java Straight Surtsey near Iceland Mt. Saint Helens colonization well documented Waif dispersal = arrival by chance, based on wind, ocean currents, flying off course, floating on debris, etc. Thus, the kinds of species on islands are non-random subsets of mainland pool of potential dispersers (waif dispersers are those species best adapted to disperse,
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Wind and sea-dispersed organisms disproportionately abundant initially on Krakatau Island; all represent waif
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Do we expect to find more species on smaller or on larger islands?
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Species-area relationship The number of species in an area increases according to the area scaled to a power function: S = cA z Where C and z are constants fitted to the data
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