chapter7 - Chapter 7 Inference Concerning Populations...

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Chapter 7 Inference Concerning Populations (Numeric Responses)
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Inference for Population Mean Practical Problem: Sample mean has sampling distribution that is Normal with mean μ and standard deviation σ / n (when the data are normal, and approximately so for large samples). is unknown . Have an estimate of , s obtained from sample data. Estimated standard error of the sample mean is: ) 1 ( ~ - - = = n t n s x t n s SE x When the sample is SRS from N ( μ , σ29 then the t -statistic (same as z- with estimated standard deviation) is distributed t with n -1 degrees of freedom
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Family of t -distributions Symmetric, Mound-shaped, centered at 0 (like the standard normal ( z ) distribution Indexed by degrees of freedom ) , the number of independent observations (deviations) comprising the estimated standard deviation. For one sample problems ν = n -1 Have heavier tails (more probability over extreme ranges) than the z -distribution Converge to the z -distribution as gets large Tables of critical values for certain upper tail probabilities are available (inside back cover of text)
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df 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.0025 0.001 0.0005 1 1.000 1.376 1.963 3.078 6.314 12.71 15.89 31.82 63.66 127.3 318.3 636.6 2 0.816 1.061 1.386 1.886 2.920 4.303 4.849 6.965 9.925 14.09 22.33 31.60 3 0.765 0.978 1.250 1.638 2.353 3.182 3.482 4.541 5.841 7.453 10.21 12.92 4 0.741 0.941 1.190 1.533 2.132 2.776 2.999 3.747 4.604 5.598 7.173 8.610 5 0.727 0.920 1.156 1.476 2.015 2.571 2.757 3.365 4.032 4.773 5.894 6.869 6 0.718 0.906 1.134 1.440 1.943 2.447 2.612 3.143 3.707 4.317 5.208 5.959 7 0.711 0.896 1.119 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.517 2.998 3.499 4.029 4.785 5.408 8 0.706 0.889 1.108 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.449 2.896 3.355 3.833 4.501 5.041 9 0.703 0.883 1.100 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.398 2.821 3.250 3.690 4.297 4.781 10 0.700 0.879 1.093 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.359 2.764 3.169 3.581 4.144 4.587 11 0.697 0.876 1.088 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.328 2.718 3.106 3.497 4.025 4.437 12 0.695 0.873 1.083 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.303 2.681 3.055 3.428 3.930 4.318 13 0.694 0.870 1.079 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.282 2.650 3.012 3.372 3.852 4.221 14 0.692 0.868 1.076 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.264 2.624 2.977 3.326 3.787 4.140 15 0.691 0.866 1.074 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.249 2.602 2.947 3.286 3.733 4.073 16 0.690 0.865 1.071 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.235 2.583 2.921 3.252 3.686 4.015 17 0.689 0.863 1.069 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.224 2.567 2.898 3.222 3.646 3.965 18 0.688 0.862 1.067 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.214 2.552 2.878 3.197 3.610 3.922 19 0.688 0.861 1.066 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.205 2.539 2.861 3.174 3.579 3.883 20 0.687 0.860 1.064 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.197 2.528 2.845 3.153 3.552 3.850 21 0.686 0.859 1.063 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.189 2.518 2.831 3.135 3.527 3.819 22 0.686 0.858 1.061 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.183 2.508 2.819 3.119 3.505 3.792 23 0.685 0.858 1.060 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.177 2.500 2.807 3.104 3.485 3.768 24 0.685 0.857 1.059 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.172 2.492 2.797 3.091 3.467 3.745 25 0.684
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This note was uploaded on 06/04/2011 for the course STA 2023 taught by Professor Ripol during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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chapter7 - Chapter 7 Inference Concerning Populations...

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