Noteshells04 - Perception and Comprehension 1 Outline...

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1 1 Perception and Comprehension 2 Outline Perception What do we perceive? Thresholds, subliminal perception How do we perceive it? Organizing principles; the influences of expectancies and beliefs Comprehension Categorization Inferences How do we take in information? External Stimuli Sights Sounds Smells Tastes Touch / Movement Sensory Receptors Eyes Ears Nose Tongue Heat, Pressure, & Motion Receptors Attention Comprehension Perception Exposure Behavior
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2 4 Psychophysics: Sensation and Perception Sensation: The immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli such as light, color, sound, scent, touch, taste. Sensation is physical. Perception: The process by which sensations are selected and organized. Perception is what we add to raw sensations so that they can be interpreted. Perception is psychological. 5 Perception: What do we perceive? Absolute threshold The lowest intensity of a stimulus that can be perceived via a sensory channel. Basic method: Ascending method of limits Start with a very low value of a stimulus (Ex: Sound) Increase until the person says “I hear something” Descending method of limits Start with a very high value of a stimulus Decrease until the person says “I don’t hear anything.” Absolute threshold can be quite low (indicating sensitivity). But, differs by individual. 6 Perception: What do we perceive? Absolute threshold for perception not frequently a big issue for marketers. When attending to the stimulus, people can usually see/ hear that something is there. Of more interest is an absolute threshold for meaning . Is the stimulus big/ loud/ intense enough to be understood ? (Also differs by individual.)
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3 7 Perception: What do we perceive? Just-noticeable difference (JND) The amount by which two stimuli must differ before a person can perceive that they are different. Also known as the differential threshold . Method of limits: Increase the difference between two identical stimuli until the person says “they’re different.” Decrease the difference between two stimuli until the person says “they’re the same.” Weber’s Law: The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different. JND = Starting Intensity * K, where K is a constant for each stimulus 8 Perception: What do we perceive? Using Weber’s Law Retailer has many stores of different sizes. All are too dim.
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Noteshells04 - Perception and Comprehension 1 Outline...

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