Horticulture1 - Horticulture What is it Definition The...

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Horticulture- What is it? Definition: The science, art, and business of cultivating fruits, vegetables , flowers, or ornamental plants. o Horticulturists – practices horticulture Agriculture ; Addresses animals and plants ( horticulture doesn’t address any animals) Agronomy: Machine driven Horticulture crop: Hand planted and hand harvested. Higher dollar per acre. Fruit , vegetables, ornamentals Forestry: not apart of horticulture. Divisions of Horticulture *** on test*** Pomology= fruit culture ( includes nut (tree) culture) Olericulture= vegetable production Ornamental horticulture= production/ use of ornamentals o Floriculture Landscape architecture o Design aspects Arboriculture ( urban trees) Floriculture ( flowers) Viticulture ( grapes) Enology ( wine and wine making) Horticulture and society Source of food o Commercial producers o Homeowners Ornamentals o Landscaping o Societal association with plants o Recreation Georgia horticulture First in greens ( collards), pecans Third in : blueberries, cantaloupe ( probable not on test) Fourth in: fresh vegetable production, watermelons Fifth in : Peaches b/c Cali has less humidity and no frost in spring. START OF REAL MATERIAL Origins of Horticulture Crops 1/13/10 Why Important? Germplasm o Gene banks – seed collections. Frozen stem sections Preservation of natural habitats – want to know where it comes from.
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A lot of stuff we eat is not native. Where did our crops first appear? Three important Theorists: Charles Darwin British naturalist Theories of evolution of natural selection Believed all the life on earth evolved Nikolai L. Vavilov Russion Botanist Foremost plant geographer of contemporary times Law of homologous Series in Variation Theory of the Centers of Origin o Center of diversity= center of origin o Plant species not uniform 8 primary centers - Columbian Exchange To Americas- Columbus moves SW Asian crop system to Caribbean. Main grains fail Citrus successful in Caribbean Bananas by 1516 Movement of plants post 1500 Issues in movement; o Hard to grow ( day lengths)= breeding new varieties Some crops like short or long days o Cultural bias o Huge impacts ( pop. Growth) Native to South America Peppers Native to South America Corn Origin in Andes, Guatemal**?? Pineapple Origin brought back by Columbus ( Caribbean)**?? Squash Comes from south America Banana Origin in India Cacao Native in south- America Coffee Native in Ethiopia Peaches
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Native in China Changes accompanied adoption of Agricultural lifestyle Increase in population More leisure time Increase in sedentary lifestyle Increase in civilization Increase in warriors and warfare Increase in social stratification Changes to Crops Shattering ability in grains Potato tubers borne close to plant Thin vs. thick shell in nuts Early Horticulturist Theophrastus o Wrote two important books on plants o Earliest known systematic author
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