Test 1 notes

# Test 1 notes - Geog 1111 Systems System set of interrelated...

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Geog 1111 Systems System- set of interrelated components that exchange energy and matter Energy- he ability to accomplish work o Eating food Matter- substance made up of atoms, acted upon energy Open systems ( common- human body) Closed system ( uncommon- atmosphere closed with respect to matter.) Relevant terms o Equilibrium- input= outputs o Feedback= outcome of the system in turn acts to influence the system ( it acts as in input) Positive feedback: outcome reinforces the process, DESTABILIZING Negative feedback: outcome cancels out the process, STABILIZING o Latitude ( parallels) Run E-W, divide N from S Lines- parallel to each other, including equator Points along a single parallel are all the same distance from the poles Range: 0-90 degrees; equator, 90= N and S poles Only the equator cuts the earth in half o Longitude (Meridians) Run N – S, divide E from W Not parallel; lines all intersect at the poles

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1 degree of longitude spans a decreasing distance towards the poles Range: 0-180 degrees; 0 – Prime or Greenwich Meridian, 180= International Dateline Each meridian cuts the earth in half o Latitude Zones 4 regions divided by tropic of cancer, equator, tropic of Capricorn: Polar regions, midlatitudes, tropics, midlatitueds, polar regions Earth Sun Geometry 1. Daylengths are currently getting shorter- False 2. In midwinter, daylengths are longer in Georgia than in Minnesota and in summer, Minnesota is longer 3. Usually doesn’t set DUE east and set DUE west 4. All hrs in the year, all locations experience 50% of daylight and 50% darkness 5. Motions of the Earth o Rotation spin of the earth on its axis The motion that gives us day and night Circle of illumination- circle that divides light from dark Takes 24hrs Counterclockwise when viewed from above the N pol o Revolution Orbit of the earth around the sun
Takes 365 ¼ days ( every 4 th year we have leap year to make up for ¼) Defines our year Counterclockwise when viewed from above our N pole Orbit is elliptical ( 3% difference in receipt of sunlight closest vs. farthest) Perihelion ( Jan 3)- ( closest to the sun) Aphelion ( July 4) (farthest from the sun) June 21- summer solstice Dec 21- winter solstice Reasons for Seasons 1. Rotation 2. Revolution 3. Tilt of the axis a. 23.5 degree tilt 4. Parallelism a. Orientation of the axis as the earth is revolving around the sun (it doesn’t change orientations- and it remains parallel to itself. 5. Spherical shape of the earth Seasons determined by Day lengths and intensity of energy The amount of solar energy received is controlled by: o Daylength o Intensity of sunlight o Intensity of energy- angle the sun makes with the horizon

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Greater solar altitude= greater intensity Declination- latitude where the suns’s rays are directly overhead at noon ( 90 degrees) Solstices and Equinoxes: Key dates ( see notes for chart)
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Test 1 notes - Geog 1111 Systems System set of interrelated...

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