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enhs660biolstressors.part+1.pdfadobe - BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS...

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BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS Illnesses associated with food caused by bacterial, viral or invertebrate parasites often go unreported CDC (2001) estimated in the US: -76 million cases of food-borne illnesses/year -325,000 hospitalizations/year -5,200 deaths/year - Health Care Costs >$1 billion/year
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Food-Borne Illnesses: Historical Data in the US 1981 - 568 outbreaks involving 14,432 cases of illness (estimates of 1 million cases/year predicted based upon low rate of reporting). Hansfield & Bryan (1983) Salmonella estimated there 1 case reported for every 29.5 cases that go unreported. (38,881 cases reported X 29.5 = 1,147,000 cases of Salmonella in the US)
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Food-Borne Illnesses: Historical Data in the US Data for 1973-84 Cause Outbreaks Cases Deaths a Bacterial 1,591 73,359 152 Parasitic 106 795 4 Viral 105 8,425 2 Chemical 518 3,542 19 Unknown 3,604 84,946 25 -------------------------------------------------------- TOTALS 5,924 171,067 202 a = Deaths/1000 cases;
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Food-Borne Illnesses: Historical US Data: Bacterial Illnesses Organism Outbreaks Cases Deaths a Salmonella 597 30,296 60 Staph aureus 358 17,332 4 Clostridium perf. 214 12,432 12 Clostridium bott. 183 428 37 Shigella 78 5,647 2 Bacillus cereus 53 777 0 Camplylobacter 37 1,289 2 ------------------------------------------------------------- a = Deaths/1000 cases -Salmonella – 30-40% of all outbreaks -Staph aureus – 25% of all outbreaks
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Food-Borne Illnesses: Historical Data for the US Todd (1991) estimated in the US: -1.9 million cases of Salmonella/year - Total cases of all food borne illnesses range from 6-99 million cases/year -Costs = estimated at $4.8-23 billion/year for all food-borne illnesses - E.G. Each case of Salmonella reported costs $1,300 in health care cost/case - Annual # of deaths range from 523- 7,241/year (latter is considered accurate)
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Factors Affecting Food Sanitation: -Improper Holding Temperature -Inadequate Cooking Temperature -Contaminated Equipment -Infected Food Handlers -Food from Unsafe Sources
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Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Point (HAACCP) HAACCP uses a number of critical control points to monitor each of the above factors to maintain the safety of food. Examples include Time – Temperature Monitors on refridgeration equipment and trucks, harvest or point of sale tags accompanying food shipments (cradle to grave), medical surveillance files on food industry workers, including foreign nationals, and food surface tags on food preparation areas within kitchens. HAACCP is the primary control mechanism used by the Food and Drug Administration to regulate the food industry.
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High Risk Foods Foods Consumed Raw – salads and shellfish such as oysters and sushi Imported Food (Top 12 Imported Foods) -Fresh & Frozen Fruits (8,379,000 metric tons) - Fresh & Frozen Vegetables (5,404,000 metric tons) - Sugar (4,024,000 metric tons) - Beer (3,436,000 metric tons) - Vegetable Oils (2,908,000 metric tons) - Cattle (2,289,000 metric tons) - Coffee (1,359,000 metric tons)
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enhs660biolstressors.part+1.pdfadobe - BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS...

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