enhs660.Petroleum+Hydrocarbons+Lecture.adobe

enhs660.Petroleum+Hydrocarbons+Lecture.adobe - Petroleum...

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Petroleum Hydrocarbons Petroleum – is a complex mixture of both inorganic and organic compounds. • It may exist as a solid (coal), liquid (crude oil) or gas (natural gas). • Mixtures of Hydrogen and Carbon termed Petroleum Hydrocarbons are the dominant component of crude oil. Petroleum Hydrocarbons are the dominant component of crude oil accounting for 50-98% of the crude oil, averaging 75% by weight. • The remaining 25% is comprised of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and trace metal.
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Petroleum Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons, which contain molecules ranging in molecular weight from 16 to 20,000, comprise more than 75% by weight of most crude and refined oils. • Examples include CH 4 (Methane = molecular weight of 16) to compounds with a molecular weight > 20,000
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Petroleum Hydrocarbons Classes of Petroleum Hydrocarbons - Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (Alkanes; Branched Chain Alkanes or Paraffins) – open straight chain molecules (e.g. CH 3 ---CH 3 = Ethane) - Alicyclic Hydrocarbons (Cycloalkanes or CycloParrafins) – carbons are arranged in a ring structure with < 6 carbons H H H----C-------------------C----H I I H----C-------------------C----H H H e.g. Cyclobutane (C 4 H 8 )
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Classes of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons – carbons are arranged in a 6 carbon ring H C H-C C-H I I H-C C-H C H e.g. Benzene C 6 H 6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – multiple (2 or more) 6 carbon rings termed PAHs which are chronically toxic causing cancer (e.g. Benzo(A)pyrene)
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Toxicity of Petroleum Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbon acute toxicity tends to increase along the series from the alipahtics, alicyclics, and aromatics. • Thus Aromatics are more toxic than > Alicyclic > Aliphatics • Increased hydrogen-carbon substitution on the carbon rings or chain increase acute toxicity PAHs are more a chronic toxicity hazard
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Refining petroleum affects its toxicity - Lower boiling point compounds such as gasoline (straight run distillates) are more acutely toxic > Middle Distillates (Kerosene, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Home Heating Oil). -
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This note was uploaded on 06/06/2011 for the course ENHS 660 taught by Professor Scott during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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enhs660.Petroleum+Hydrocarbons+Lecture.adobe - Petroleum...

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